English 2

Relative Pronouns (Practice +Key)

1 Complete these sentences using one word only.

  • 1 A purse is a small bag ______ people, usually women, use to carry money in.
  • 2 A trainer is someone ______ teaches a skill through practice.
  • 3 A gazelle is a kind of small antelope _______ can run very fast.
  • 4 Reeboks, _______ live in Africa, belong to the gazelle family.
  • 5 Nike, _______ means ‘victory’ in Greek, was an ancient goddess.
  • 6 ‘Victorian’, _______ refers to the time _______ Queen Victoria ruled in England, is the period between 1837 and 1901.
  • 7 A place _______ people of similar interests meet is called a club.
  • 8 Reebok, _______ reputation is worldwide, has won many international prizes.

2 Relative pronouns. Complete this text using one appropriate word in each space.

Nike

  • Nike is an American manufacturer of sports clothes and shoes, (1) _______ has become very fashionable, particularly with young people. Nike, (2) _______ is pronounced ‘nikey’, is the goddess victory in Greek mythology. Nike, (3) _______ sat at the side of Zeus, was usually represented as a winged figure.
  • Caroline Davidson, a graphic design student at Portland State University, was commissioned to design the Nike ‘swoosh’ logo (4) _______ now appears on every pair of Nike shoes.
  • The Nike logo, for (5) ________ Davidson was paid only 35 dollars, captures the spirit of the goddess (6) ________ inspired the most courageous Greek warriors. Nike is the twentieth – century footwear (7) ________ helps the world’s greatest athletes win new victories.

KEY:

  • 1 which
  • 2 who
  • 3 which
  • 4 which
  • 5 which
  • 6 which, when
  • 7 where
  • 8 whose

NIKE

  • 1 which
  • 2 which
  • 3 who
  • 4 which
  • 5 whom
  • 6 who
  • 7 which
English 2

Antonyms (Practice +Key)

Opposites attract. Complete the sentences by using the opposite of the word in brackets. Sometimes you will need to change the form-tense. The first one has been done for you.

a) She fell off the ladder and everyone laughed . (CRY)

  1. His business has ___________more than he expected. (FAIL)
  2. The car ___________ the tree. (MISS)
  3. I expect our team will ___________ tomorrow. (LOSE)
  4. She flatly ___________ his proposal of marriage. (ACCEPT)
  5. What time does our coach ___________? (ARRIVE)
  6. Why do we ___________ so much money on food? (SAVE)
  7. This exam was difficult. Most of the students ___________ . (PASS)
  8. A lot of private property was ___________ in the war. (CREATE)
  9. We only___________ our tickets a day before we were due to leave. (SEND)
  10. He asked me if I could ___________ him $10 till Monday. (BORROW)
  11. Don’t ___________ we’re having lunch together tomorrow. (REMEMBER)

KEY:

  1. His business has SUCCEEDED more than he expected. (FAIL)
  2. The car HIT the tree. (MISS)
  3. I expect our team will WIN tomorrow. (LOSE)
  4. She flatly REFUSED his proposal of marriage. (ACCEPT)
  5. What time does our coach LEAVE? (ARRIVE)
  6. Why do we SPEND so much money on food? (SAVE)
  7. This exam was difficult. Most of the students FAILED. (PASS)
  8. A lot of private property was DESTROYED in the war. (CREATE)
  9. We only RECEIVED our tickets a day before we were due to leave. (SEND)
  10. He asked me if I could LEND him $10 till Monday. (BORROW)
  11. Don’t FORGET we’re having lunch together tomorrow. (REMEMBER)
English 2

Sports (vocabulary practice)

1 Circle the answer with the appropriate word or phrase.

  1. Which football team do you ________ ?
    1. support
    2. encourage
    3. yell for
  2. You will need to ________ hard to get a place on the Olympic team.
    1. develop
    2. train
    3. learn
  3. There were many ________ watching the tennis finals.
    1. spectators
    2. public
    3. audience
  4. I think that Sam’s younger brothers ________ karate.
    1. play
    2. do
    3. go
  5. I hope our team doesn’t ________ the match on Saturday.
    1. fail
    2. lose
    3. defeat
  6. If our team manages to ________ another goal, they will be national champions!
    1. hit
    2. score
    3. enter
  7. They often________ jogging in the streets near their home.
    1. go
    2. make
    3. do
  8. Does Eddie ________ rugby for the university?
    1. play
    2. make
    3. do
  9. Roger Federer ________ the tennis record in the number of titles last year.
    1. broke
    2. achieved
    3. hit
  10. A Russian gymnast ________ a record in that event.
    1. has
    2. holds
    3. is

2 Which sports are described?

  1. Some sportspeople think it should be banned. You need to be physically tough and have quick reflexes. You don’t need any equipment, just a pair of gloves and some lace-up boots.
  2. Anyone can play this sport. All you need is a racket, a few balls and a court with a net across the middle. It can be played on grass or harder surfaces.
  3. There are eleven players in a team. To win, a team has to score goals against their opponents. This means kicking a ball past the goalkeeper into a net.
  4. It’s usually an individual sport. The equipment can be expensive. You need a set of clubs and lots of balls if you tend to lose quite a few.
  5. Most people who are successful at this sport are very tall. Players need to be able to control a ball with their hands while running.

3 Fill in the gaps using ONE word only, which best fits each space.

  • Muhammad Ali, possibly the most famous athlete ___________, is certainly one of the most recognizable faces in the world history. Ali, ____________ proclaimed himself the ‘Greatest of All Time’, started fighting under the name of Cassius Clay. When he converted to Islam, he changed his name ____________ Muhammad Ali. Ali became world heavyweight champion ____________ the age of twenty-four and went on to become the first man ____________ win the heavyweight title three times. Both arrogant and charismatic, people loved him or hated him. His refusal to serve in the United States Army during the Vietnam war, saying that ____________ was against his religious beliefs, made ____________ unpopular with the authorities. He ____________ arrested, stripped of his heavyweight title and not allowed to box ____________ three years, ____________ many feel were his peak years. Ali was once asked on a TV show ____________ he would have done with his life given a choice. He replied that he ____________ not think of anything other than boxing. That is all he had ever wanted or wished ____________ . He couldn’t imagine doing anything ____________ .
English 2

Relative Clauses (Introduction + practice)

Let’s take a closer look at the following sentences:

  • I couldn’t hear WHAT they were saying.
  • The man WHOM I saw on the bus the other day is Tom’s brother.
  • James didn’t phone, WHICH is very surprising.
  • My best friend Katherine, WHO happens to go to the same university as me, decided to leave her parents’ house and start living on her own.

All the listed examples above demonstrate the use of RELATIVE CLAUSES. The relative clauses can be (1) defining and (2) non-defining. Here’s the structure:

Some other ways of using Relative clauses:

  • Examples
  • who and which are more usual in written English whereas that is more usual in speech when referring to things:
  • That’s the boy (Ø, that, who, whom) I invited to the party.
  • That is the house (Ø, that, which) I’d like to buy.

PRACTICE:

1 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.

  1. What’s the name of the man whose car you borrowed?
  2. A cemetery is a place____________ people are buried.
  3. A pacifist is a person ____________ believes that all wars are wrong.
  4. An orphan is a child ____________ parents are dead.
  5. What was the name of the person to ____________ you spoke on the phone?
  6. The place ____________ we spent our holidays was really beautiful.
  7. This school is only for children ____________ first language is not English.
  8. The woman with ____________ he fell in love left him after a month.

2 Make one sentence from the two. Use who/that/which.

  1. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.
  2. (The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.)
  3. A waitress served us. She was impolite and impatient.
  4. The _______________________________________________________
  5. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.
  6. The _______________________________________________________
  7. Some people were arrested. They have not been released.
  8. The _______________________________________________________
  9. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half an hour.
  10. The _______________________________________________________

3 Complete the text with what, which, whom, whose, who or that.

  • My friend Caroline, ____________ had always wanted to live in the country, finally decided to move. She wanted a house ____________ had at least three bedrooms. The first house she looked at was exactly ____________ she wanted – it was an old house with a lovely garden. But her sister, ____________ opinion she always respected, wasn’t very enthusiastic, as she thought the house needed a lot doing to it, ____________ would mean spending a lot more money. Caroline looked at other houses, none of ____________ were as nice as the first one. Eventually, she made up her mind to buy it. When she went to the lawyers to sign the contract she saw amongst the documents the personal details of the woman from ____________ she was buying it. The woman was born on 13th June 1963, exactly the same day as her! That coincidence was ____________ finally convinced her that the house was meant for her.

English 2

THE MIND (Vocabulary practice)

1 Collocations with ‘mind’. Study the examples.

  1. Oh, I forgot the key. Never mind! (to be concerned about, be troubled about )
  2. Mind the icy sidewalk! It’s slippery! (to be careful about )
  3. I can’t keep my mind on work. (the focus of thought, attention )
  4. The great minds of the past were Shakespeare and Homer, among many others. (a person considered as an intellectual being)
  5. I liked both dresses but I didn’t buy any of them. I couldn’t make up my mind. (to decide )
  6. The possibility of failure crossed your mind. But I had to go on with it. (occur to you, suggest itself )
  7. ‘Maybe we could celebrate tonight.’ ‘What did you have in mind?’ (propose, plan, think )
  8. Bear in mind that petrol stations are scarce in this area. (do not forget, be mindful )
  9. You must allow me to speak my mind. (say frankly what I think )
  10. Go away and mind your own business! (do not interfere )

2 Fill the gaps with ‘mind’ collocations.

  1. Once he _________ his mind to do something, there was no stopping him.
  2. _________ you don’t burn those sausages! Check them up!
  3. ‘Mike, I’m really sorry.’ – ‘ _________, it happens to me all the time.’
  4. It was a terrible fight. I just couldn’t stay away and _________! I had to phone the police.
  5. It was Helen’s 50th birthday so I wanted to throw a surprise party. Her not coming to the party _________ (not) at all!
  6. Politicians always _________ in debates. That’s why I just don’t like it!
  7. Henry couldn’t _________ the project. The phone was ringing, clients were coming in, he just couldn’t concentrate.
  8. ‘I plan to propose marriage to Tina, in a very unusual way.’ – ‘What do you _________?

3 ‘Study’ vocabulary. Fill the gaps.

learn study teach practice revise

  1. He is _________ Medicine because he wants to become a doctor.
  2. I’m just _________ for my History test tomorrow. I have a lot to cover.
  3. Silvia _________French in an elementary school.
  4. Students need to _________ maths a lot in order to pass the exam.
  5. I have been _________ English since I was 7 years old.

4 Read the statements and match them with the right word given in the box.

classmate examiner learner principal pupil coach graduate
lecturer professor tutor
  1. Someone who teaches at university.
  2. Someone who has a college degree.
  3. The head of a school.
  4. Someone who studies at primary or secondary school.
  5. The most important teacher in a university department.
  6. Someone who teaches one student or a very small class.
  7. Someone in the same class as yourself.
  8. Someone who trains a sports team.
  9. Someone who writes the question papers of an examination.
  10. Someone who drives but has not yet passed a driving test.

5 Underline the most suitable word or phrase.

  1. Jack decided to take a course/lesson in hotel management.
  2. Sheila always got good marks/points in algebra.
  3. After leaving school, Ann studied/trained as a teacher.
  4. Peter decided not to go in/enter for examination.
  5. My sister learned/taught me how to draw.
  6. I can’t come to the cinema. I have to read/study for a test.
  7. In History classes we had to learn a lot of dates by hand/by heart.
  8. I hope your work will improve by the end of the course/term.
  9. If you have any questions, raise/rise your hand.
English 2

Funny ha-ha: Vocabulary practice

I Fill in the blanks using the words given:

common countless gains awareness sitcom founded wipe off reminiscing
  1. I like many TV series, but my favourite __________ is “Man Behaving Badly”.
  2. Having an optimistic attitude towards life brings many positive _________.
  3. Adults don’t have much in _________ with children; kids laugh far more than grown-ups.
  4. BBC _________ many national TV series which later became an intenational success.
  5. Mr Bean has no __________ of his jokes and funny looks, which makes him even funnier.
  6. _______ that silly grin _________ your face, private! This is the army, not a pre-school!
  7. Eddy Murphy brought joy to ____________ people through his comedies.
  8. We used to sit and watch our high-school photos ___________ about the fun we had.

II Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word in brackets:

Friends – My Favorite TV Show

  • Television today provides the _______ (VIEW) with not only information and ______________ (ENTERTAIN), but also with an important reason to sit down and spend a significant amount of leisure time in front of the TV – FUN. Among the many shows and movies, my favourite one is the US comedy “Friends”. “Friends” is a show about love, young people’s careers, and a period of their life when there is a ___________ (POSSIBLE) that unexpected and _________ (USUAL) things can happen. But most of all, it is about __________ (FRIEND); when you are young and single in the city, your friends are your family. The real story began when the main __________ (CHARACTER) were teenagers while _______ (SLOW) becoming a “family”. They went through ups and downs together and soon realized that _________ (LIVE) would not be the same if they hadn’t done it that way.
  • Between the stupid and _________ (FUN) things they do or say, stands the love, ___________ (INNOCENT) and sincerity of those people. This comedy touches every aspect of a person’s life at the ages of twenty-five to thirty years old; the trouble of building a new career, _________ (FINANCE) problems, the fear of making the wrong __________ (CHOOSE) in life, and the mistakes they all made in the past still trying so hard to correct. This is why I love “Friends”. Every person can find something about their own life when watching it, and can also find __________ (USE) and easy ways to maybe _________ (SOLUTION) their own personal problems.

III Fill in the blanks with a correct PREPOSITION:

  1. Only Fools and Horses is a TV series famous _____ their British humour and the actors are popular ______ audience all over the world.
  2. I’m not keen ______ comedies but I find Naked Gun hilarious.
  3. Alo, alo reminds me _______ some old French movies made somewhere in Provance.
  4. The Simpsons have beaten all TV records and made a contact _______ the viewers of all ages.
  5. I got fed _____ ______ things like Police Academy.
  6. I saw Jim Carrey _____ TV last night and I was impressed _________ his appearance.
  7. I am not quite sure _______ Ashton Kutcher, but I think he is more _____comedies than drama movies.
Friends
English 2

Judging by appearances (Reading + Vocabulary)

1 Read the text below and find out:

  1. the number of years Paul has been unemployed
  2. two things that create a good impression with many employers
  3. what Americans think of tall people
  4. what Americans think of physically attractive people
  5. the reason why attractive people do not always get the best jobs
  6. three things that make you look nervous
  7. where you should look at an interviewer in England.

  • Paul Smith is 25. He left university two years ago. He has been to twenty-five interviews and hasn’t found a job. However, he won’t change his appearance to try and get work. ‘This is the way I look. You can take it or leave it. People should look at my qualifications, not my hair,’ he says.
  • Unfortunately for Paul, first impressions are vital. For many employers, neat and tidy hair and smart clothes are as important as qualifications. An interview may last half an hour or more, but the decision to hire or not is usually taken in the first minutes, sometimes even before the interviewee has spoken.
  • So what factors contribute to that vital first impression? It varies a lot according to our culture. For example, in the United States tall people are considered more reliable and serious in business. Physically attractive people are thought of as warmer, kinder, more sociable and even more intelligent although they are not always as lucky as we think – some people think they are irresponsible and immature so they don’t give them the best jobs.
  • We can’t do much about our height or how good-looking we are but we can control our body language. For example, if you hang your head and play with your hair or hold your hand over your mouth you may seem nervous or dishonest.
  • It is also important to look in the right place. In Britain and America it is appropriate to look the interviewer more or less in the eyes. Unfortunately, people from some cultures can find this quite difficult because they do not look directly at strangers.

VOCABULARY

1 Find the (underlined) words in the text which mean:

  1. friendly, outgoing ______________________
  2. important, necessary, crucial _____________________
  3. insincere, false, untrustworthy ____________________
  4. fashionable, neat, chic ___________________________
  5. act as a factor, give support (money or ideas) ____________________
  6. not fully mentally grown or developed _______________________
  7. dependable, responsible, trustworthy ___________________

2 You have come across the adjectives with negative prefixes (DIShonest, IMmature, IRresponsible) in the text. Make the given adjectives negative by adding prefixes dis-, im-, il-, un-, ir-, in-.

  1. I’ll help you in a minute! Don’t be so ______________ (mature)!
  2. She never learnt to read or write, she was completely ________________ (literate).
  3. You’ve broken my favourite cup! How _____________ (responsible)! I’ll never find another one.
  4. Children tend to be ___________ (obedient) if there’s no one to teach them discipline.
  5. Sorry, Pete. That’s _____________ (correct). Anybody has got a correct answer?
  6. Those clothes are highly _____________ (acceptable) for the prom night. Go and get changed.
  7. I did all the work and she got all the credit for it. That’s so__________ (fair)!
  8. You paid $ 20 for a sandwich?! That’s ______________ (believable)! You must be joking!
  9. It’s ____________ (legal) to possess a gun if you don’t have a license for it.
  10. I wouldn’t say his sister is ______________ (attractive), I would just say that she doesn’t wear clothes that suit her figure.

3 Body idioms. Choose the correct part of the body from the list to fill the gaps in the idioms in italics in the sentence. There are two more words than you need.

arm feet hair legs nose back finger head neck tongue

  1. Her father says ‘Yes’ to everything she asks for. She can twist him round her little _____________.
  2. I wouldn’t get too friendly with John if I were you. He’s quite likely to stab you in the ______________.
  3. I stayed up and watched the late horror film on TV last night. It really was frightening. It made my ___________ stand on end.
  4. By the time children are sixteen or seventeen, they’ve learnt to stand on their own two ____________.
  5. I’d give my right ___________ for a ticket to the Olympic Games.
  6. As usual, I’ve got too much work to do, but I’m just about managing to keep my _____________ above water.
  7. The person sitting behind me was a real pain in the ____________. He talked all the way through the film.
  8. I can’t remember her name – it’s driving me mad – it’s on the tip of my ______________
English 2

Question tags practice

1 Fill the blanks with a suitable tag.

  1. David spends a lot of money on clothes, _________________?
  2. You haven’t done your homework, ___________________?
  3. Let’s go for a walk, ___________________?
  4. The employers were on a meeting yesterday, __________________?
  5. She won’t be here on time, _________________?
  6. You spent the day with your boyfriend, _______________?
  7. They’ll invite us, _________________?
  8. Sam has a new bike, ________________?
  9. I’m fine now, __________________?
  10. All the boys made a mess, _______________?
  11. It wasn’t so cold yesterday, ______________?

More on Question tags – have a look at the video here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JNhb_N-dcls

English 2

Reported Speech – Paraphrasing Practice +Key

Rewrite the sentences in indirect speech using the verb given! Add prepositions where needed.

  • “Milli Vanilli lip-synched all the time,” the manager said. ADMITTED
  • “I will call you back” she said. OFFERED
  • “You lied to me” he shouted. ACCUSED
  • “You should see that play,” Peter said. RECOMMENDED
  • “We are the best team in the championship,” the player said. BOASTED
  • “Don’t believe him,” my mother said. WARNED
  • “Let’s go swimming,” he said. SUGGESTED
  • “Shall I help you?” the gentleman said. OFFERED
  • “I’m sorry I’m late,” the student said. APOLOGIZED
  • “You let him fall,” she said. BLAMED
  • “Stop talking at once!” the teacher said. ORDERED
  • “Your essay is not good enough.” she said. COMPLAINED/ABOUT
  • “You should try harder” my teacher advised. SUGGESTED
  • “You mustn’t talk during the exam!” the examiner said. FORBADE
  • “Please, don’t play the drums while your sister is sleeping.” my mother said. ASKED
  • “It’s a very delicate case.” the detective said. EXPLAINED
  • “Please, please, don’t kill me.” the hostage said. BEGGED
  • “Stop the car or I’ll start screaming.” she said. THREATENED
  • “I didn’t sell you car.” George said. DENIED
  • “You never listen to me.” Susan said. COMPLAINED
  • “I’ll be more careful next time.” Simon said. PROMISED
  • “You shouldn’t try it once more.” my friend said. DISCOURAGED
  • “No, I won’t tell you the answer.” he said. REFUSED

KEY

  • ADMITTED The manager admitted that Milli Vanilli lip-synched all the time. /The manager admitted (to) Milli Vanilli’s lip-synching all the time
  • OFFERED She offered to call me back.
  • ACCUSED He accused me of lying to him.
  • RECOMMENDED He recommended seeing that play.
  • BOASTED The player boasted about being/playing in the best team in the championship.
  • WARNED My mother warned me not to believe him.
  • SUGGESTED He suggested going swimming./He suggested that we go swimming.
  • OFFERED The gentleman offered to help me.
  • APOLOGIZED The student apologized for being late.
  • BLAMED She blamed him/her for letting him fall.
  • ORDERED The teacher ordered me/us to stop talking at once.
  • COMPLAINED/ABOUT She complained to me about my essay not being good enough.
  • SUGGESTED My teacher suggested my trying harder./ The teacher suggested that I try harder.
  • FORBADE The examiner forbade us to talk during the exam.
  • ASKED My mother asked me not to play the drums while my sister was sleeping.
  • EXPLAINED The detective explained that it was a very delicate case.
  • BEGGED The hostage begged me not to kill him/her.
  • THREATENED She threatened to start screaming if I didn’t stop the car.
  • DENIED George denied selling/having sold my car.
  • COMPLAINED Susan complained that I never listen to her. OR
  • Susan complained to me about my never/not listening to her.
  • PROMISED Simon promised to be more careful next time.
  • DISCOURAGED My friend discouraged me from trying it/that once more/another time.