1 A purse is a small bag ______ people, usually women, use to carry money in.
2 A trainer is someone ______ teaches a skill through practice.
3 A gazelle is a kind of small antelope _______ can run very fast.
4 Reeboks, _______ live in Africa, belong to the gazelle family.
5 Nike, _______ means ‘victory’ in Greek, was an ancient goddess.
6 ‘Victorian’, _______ refers to the time _______ Queen Victoria ruled in England, is the period between 1837 and 1901.
7 A place _______ people of similar interests meet is called a club.
8 Reebok, _______ reputation is worldwide, has won many international prizes.
2 Relative pronouns. Complete this text using one appropriate word in each space.
Nike is an American manufacturer of sports clothes and shoes, (1) _______ has become very fashionable, particularly with young people. Nike, (2) _______ is pronounced ‘nikey’, is the goddess victory in Greek mythology. Nike, (3) _______ sat at the side of Zeus, was usually represented as a winged figure.
Caroline Davidson, a graphic design student at Portland State University, was commissioned to design the Nike ‘swoosh’ logo (4) _______ now appears on every pair of Nike shoes.
The Nike logo, for (5) ________ Davidson was paid only 35 dollars, captures the spirit of the goddess (6) ________ inspired the most courageous Greek warriors. Nike is the twentieth – century footwear (7) ________ helps the world’s greatest athletes win new victories.
1 Circle the answer with the appropriate word or phrase.
Which football team do you ________ ?
You will need to ________ hard to get a place on the Olympic team.
There were many ________ watching the tennis finals.
I think that Sam’s younger brothers ________ karate.
I hope our team doesn’t ________ the match on Saturday.
If our team manages to ________ another goal, they will be national champions!
They often________ jogging in the streets near their home.
Does Eddie ________ rugby for the university?
Roger Federer ________ the tennis record in the number of titles last year.
A Russian gymnast ________ a record in that event.
2 Which sports are described?
Some sportspeople think it should be banned. You need to be physically tough and have quick reflexes. You don’t need any equipment, just a pair of gloves and some lace-up boots.
Anyone can play this sport. All you need is a racket, a few balls and a court with a net across the middle. It can be played on grass or harder surfaces.
There are eleven players in a team. To win, a team has to score goals against their opponents. This means kicking a ball past the goalkeeper into a net.
It’s usually an individual sport. The equipment can be expensive. You need a set of clubs and lots of balls if you tend to lose quite a few.
Most people who are successful at this sport are very tall. Players need to be able to control a ball with their hands while running.
3 Fill in the gaps using ONE word only, which best fits each space.
Muhammad Ali, possibly the most famous athlete ___________, is certainly one of the most recognizable faces in the world history. Ali, ____________ proclaimed himself the ‘Greatest of All Time’, started fighting under the name of Cassius Clay. When he converted to Islam, he changed his name ____________ Muhammad Ali. Ali became world heavyweight champion ____________ the age of twenty-four and went on to become the first man ____________ win the heavyweight title three times. Both arrogant and charismatic, people loved him or hated him. His refusal to serve in the United States Army during the Vietnam war, saying that ____________ was against his religious beliefs, made ____________ unpopular with the authorities. He ____________ arrested, stripped of his heavyweight title and not allowed to box ____________ three years, ____________ many feel were his peak years. Ali was once asked on a TV show ____________ he would have done with his life given a choice. He replied that he ____________ not think of anything other than boxing. That is all he had ever wanted or wished ____________ . He couldn’t imagine doing anything ____________ .
Let’s take a closer look at the following sentences:
I couldn’t hear WHAT they were saying.
The man WHOM I saw on the bus the other day is Tom’s brother.
James didn’t phone, WHICH is very surprising.
My best friend Katherine, WHO happens to go to the same university as me, decided to leave her parents’ house and start living on her own.
All the listed examples above demonstrate the use of RELATIVE CLAUSES. The relative clauses can be (1) defining and (2) non-defining. Here’s the structure:
Some other ways of using Relative clauses:
who and which are more usual in written English whereas that is more usual in speech when referring to things:
That’s the boy (Ø, that, who, whom) I invited to the party.
That is the house (Ø, that, which) I’d like to buy.
1 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.
What’s the name of the man whose car you borrowed?
A cemetery is a place____________ people are buried.
A pacifist is a person ____________ believes that all wars are wrong.
An orphan is a child ____________ parents are dead.
What was the name of the person to ____________ you spoke on the phone?
The place ____________ we spent our holidays was really beautiful.
This school is only for children ____________ first language is not English.
The woman with ____________ he fell in love left him after a month.
2 Make one sentence from the two. Use who/that/which.
A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.
(The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.)
A waitress served us. She was impolite and impatient.
A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.
Some people were arrested. They have not been released.
A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half an hour.
3 Complete the text with what, which, whom, whose, who or that.
My friend Caroline, ____________ had always wanted to live in the country, finally decided to move. She wanted a house ____________ had at least three bedrooms. The first house she looked at was exactly ____________ she wanted – it was an old house with a lovely garden. But her sister, ____________ opinion she always respected, wasn’t very enthusiastic, as she thought the house needed a lot doing to it, ____________ would mean spending a lot more money. Caroline looked at other houses, none of ____________ were as nice as the first one. Eventually, she made up her mind to buy it. When she went to the lawyers to sign the contract she saw amongst the documents the personal details of the woman from ____________ she was buying it. The woman was born on 13th June 1963, exactly the same day as her! That coincidence was ____________ finally convinced her that the house was meant for her.
I like many TV series, but my favourite __________ is “Man Behaving Badly”.
Having an optimistic attitude towards life brings many positive _________.
Adults don’t have much in _________ with children; kids laugh far more than grown-ups.
BBC _________ many national TV series which later became an intenational success.
Mr Bean has no __________ of his jokes and funny looks, which makes him even funnier.
_______ that silly grin _________ your face, private! This is the army, not a pre-school!
Eddy Murphy brought joy to ____________ people through his comedies.
We used to sit and watch our high-school photos ___________ about the fun we had.
in the blanks using the correct form of the word in brackets:
Friends – My Favorite TV Show
Television today provides the _______ (VIEW) with not only information and ______________ (ENTERTAIN), but also with an important reason to sit down and spend a significant amount of leisure time in front of the TV – FUN. Among the many shows and movies, my favourite one is the US comedy “Friends”. “Friends” is a show about love, young people’s careers, and a period of their life when there is a ___________ (POSSIBLE) that unexpected and _________ (USUAL) things can happen. But most of all, it is about __________ (FRIEND); when you are young and single in the city, your friends are your family. The real story began when the main __________ (CHARACTER) were teenagers while _______ (SLOW) becoming a “family”. They went through ups and downs together and soon realized that _________ (LIVE) would not be the same if they hadn’t done it that way.
Between the stupid and _________ (FUN) things they do or say, stands the love, ___________ (INNOCENT) and sincerity of those people. This comedy touches every aspect of a person’s life at the ages of twenty-five to thirty years old; the trouble of building a new career, _________ (FINANCE) problems, the fear of making the wrong __________ (CHOOSE) in life, and the mistakes they all made in the past still trying so hard to correct. This is why I love “Friends”. Every person can find something about their own life when watching it, and can also find __________ (USE) and easy ways to maybe _________ (SOLUTION) their own personal problems.
in the blanks with a correct PREPOSITION:
Fools and Horses is a TV
series famous _____ their British humour and the actors are popular
______ audience all over the world.
not keen ______ comedies but I find Naked
alo reminds me _______ some
old French movies made somewhere in Provance.
Simpsons have beaten all TV
records and made a contact _______ the viewers of all ages.
fed _____ ______ things like Police
Jim Carrey _____ TV last night and I was impressed _________ his
not quite sure _______ Ashton Kutcher, but I think he is more
_____comedies than drama movies.
two things that create a good impression with many employers
what Americans think of tall people
what Americans think of physically attractive people
the reason why attractive people do not always get the best jobs
three things that make you look nervous
where you should look at an interviewer in England.
Paul Smith is 25. He left university two years ago. He has been to twenty-five interviews and hasn’t found a job. However, he won’t change his appearance to try and get work. ‘This is the way I look. You can take it or leave it. People should look at my qualifications, not my hair,’ he says.
Unfortunately for Paul, first impressions are vital. For many employers, neat and tidy hair and smart clothes are as important as qualifications. An interview may last half an hour or more, but the decision to hire or not is usually taken in the first minutes, sometimes even before the interviewee has spoken.
So what factors contribute to that vital first impression? It varies a lot according to our culture. For example, in the United States tall people are considered more reliable and serious in business. Physically attractive people are thought of as warmer, kinder, more sociable and even more intelligent although they are not always as lucky as we think – some people think they are irresponsible and immature so they don’t give them the best jobs.
We can’t do much about our height or how good-looking we are but we can control our body language. For example, if you hang your head and play with your hair or hold your hand over your mouth you may seem nervous or dishonest.
It is also important to look in the right place. In Britain and America it is appropriate to look the interviewer more or less in the eyes. Unfortunately, people from some cultures can find this quite difficult because they do not look directly at strangers.
1 Find the (underlined) words in the
text which mean: