If you want to buy a car, you’ll need to take a bank _________ in advance.
I couldn’t pay off my _________, so I asked my father for some money.
Every company can make a big ___________ if they work well.
Mark put some money on his saving account, so he has a 1% __________ from his savings.
We had such a bad advertising campaign that we made a huge ____________ and lost some of our clients.
2. MAKE or DO? Fill in. Then, use the phrases in the sentences.
___ a decision
____ extra work
__ a suggestion
If I have to ________________ about something, I consult my colleagues and we always decide together.
Sorry, can I _________________? You should make an analysis of the market and then make a product list.
We made a big loss in Spain last year but we _________________ to fix the damage. We just focused on Italian market more.
Some people ______________, some people spend money. You can’t do both.
If you want to earn more, you must _______________!
Laura, can you ________________? I have to leave earlier today, can you finish my project, please?
3. Complete the paragraph with the words from the box:
Salary Benefits Experience Interviews Application form Vacancy Qualifications
We have a (1) ……………………… for an administration officer to work in our busy Sheffield office. If you have a minimum of two years (2)…………………………. in this sort of work and enjoy being part of a team, send for an (3) …………………………………… to the address below. (4) ………………… is in the region of & 12,000, depending on (5) ……………………… (Those with university degrees may receive more.) Other (6) ……………………….. include the use of the company gym and subsidised meals in the staff restaurant. (7) …………………………… will be held on November 5th and 6th at our London office.
If you want to make your writing easier to read and more eloquent, using the connectors in the correct places is a must. Start using connectors to give your writing more flow and more style. Different types of connectors are used according to the logical relationship they establish between one sentence and another. Also known as conjunctions, these linkers can express contrast, cause, purpose, consequence, addition, and exemplification.
Although/ though/ Even though + full sentence +comma / Even so+ comma
In spite of/ despite + noun or –ING
Despite the fact that…
However/ Nevertheless + comma
On the one hand/ On the other hand + comma
In contrast to/with
As opposed to…
On the contrary + comma
Alternatively + comma
Instead of + -ING
The former/ the latter (only with 2 components)
While/ Whereas + full sentence
But/Yet + full sentence or –ING Example: The book is short, YET it is interesting / The book is short YET interesting .
As well as + -ING
Apart from this / that + comma
Also (at the beginning + comma/ before the main verb)
Too (at the end of a sentence)
Besides + comma
Additionally + comma
What is more + comma
On top of that + comma
Furthermore / Morever (after giving various reasons)
In addition to + – ING
One such example is …
Such as …
In other words + comma
That is to say …
One instance could be …
For example / for instance
First of all / Firstly + comma
To begin with + comma
Once /as soon as + full sentence. Ex. Once you have finished studying you can go to the park
Secondly + comma
Later/ after that / afterwards + comma
Then / next + comma
Meanwhile/ in the meantime + comma
Now that + full sentence. Ex. Now that you have finished studying you can go to the park.
All of a sudden / suddenly + comma
Eventually/ finally/ in the end + comma
So that / in order that + full sentence
In order to /so as to + infinitive
As a result/ consequently/ accordingly/ as a consequence + comma
Therefore + comma
For this /that reason + comma
So / that is why/ because of this/ that + comma
With this in mind + comma
On account of the fact that + full sentence
Bearing this in mind + comma
Taking this into account + comma
Because of / on account of + full sentence
Owing to / due to + -ING / noun
In view of/ in the light of + -ING/ full sentence
Given that + comma
My own view of this is …
My personal opinion …
Speaking personally + comma
It seems to me that…
For my part + comma
As I see it + comma
I feel strongly that …
I believe …
PRESENT A TOPIC
It is often said / asserted/ claimed that …
It is a well-known fact that…
For the majority of people …
One of the most striking features/ aspects of this issue/ topic…
Last year we started producing a new product _______ a client. It took some time before they gave us the green light_________ they wanted to see all the production details and double-check them. It then took them a further 3 months to sign the contract and our company didn’t go into production until they had everything in black and __________.
Unfortunately, the client was unable to get the new product off the ground and they decided to stop production. As a result ____ this, the company is starting to run short of orders and we’ll be in the red within a month if we don’t _______ some new clients soon.
we _______ a meeting with the president and it looks like he means
business. The shares of the
company have taken a nosedive
and because of this he wants to keep
all the expenses that are going
out and will be cutting back
on the social events that had already _______ planned.
We are not very ________about this as the president himself got into trouble for offering handouts to politicians in return for lucrative contracts. Nobody wants us to produce anything anymore because of this. Currently, there are several new projects in the pipeline to ________ the image of the company. In the meantime, he will be cutting corners to keep spending to a minimum.
Tenses – Present Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple:
1. Many big companies __________________(not have) canteens for their employees.
2. We ______________________(invest) in our computing system a lot recently, and just a month ago our human resource manager _________________ (make) an agreement to do more in the field of education of the employees.
3. I’m afraid, you can’t talk to Mr Johnson right now. He ______________________(have) a board meeting in his office.
4. Where ______________________ (we, put away) used paper? In the box over there?
5. Beacuse of their enormous success, COCA-COLA _____________________ (be) one of the main drinks producers in this area for decades.
6. In 2002. our company _________________ (be) equipped with very basic machinery, so the management _____________________(decide) to buy some new ones.
II Countables/Uncountables – Complete the dialogue with the words in the box:a lot of, much, many, a little, a few
A: Is the agenda ready for tomorrow’s meeting? We haven’t got _____________ time left, you know that.
B: Yes, I’ve done it. I had ____________ things planned to put it in, but I managed to make it short and put everything into 5 items.
A: Very well. _______________ colleagues informed me that they can’t make it to the meeting. Take their names, please.
B: Sure. How ______________ of them said they’re away on business?
A: I don’t know now. But I will check it later. Let’s have a coffee break now. Please, pass me the sugar. Just _____________, please.
B: Ok, but you can have just __________________ minutes, because we have _______________ work to do!
A: I’ll be done quickly. You know I don’t need ___________________ to get back to the track!
Future – fill in the blanks using the right future form.
So, everyone, let’s start! Susan, (you, open) _________________________ the meeting, please?
Look out! The laptop (fall) ________________________ off your desk!
In the near future, small businesses (definitely, lose) _______________________ major part od the consumer population.
Well, I’m not quite sure, but we (try) _____________________ with making our strategy more efficient, and we’ll see.
I’m having an important meeting in London tomorrow morning and I and my colleague (stay) ____________________ the London hotel.
A: I need to see some price-lists now.
B: Ok, I (not, keep) ______________________ you with the chart, then. Here’s your price-list.
Obligation and necessity – Fill in using: have
to, has to, didn’t have to, had to, needn’t, mustn’t
for the email. I got it yesterday, but I saw it wasn’t urgent and
that I _____________________ answer right away, so I left it for
_______________ smoke in here! That’s forbidden!
_______________ get up early if he wants to get ready for the
parcels were all wrong! We _______________open them all, and put
some new labels!
you want to apply for the job, you __________________ send an
Maria that she __________________ send the contract, I have one copy
here with me. She can keep hers.
Suggestion. Suggest a suitable solution to the given problem using
relevant words or phrases:
1. We have taken on too much work lately.
2. Maria has been talking on the phone for the whole morning!
3. I am always late for work.
4. The meeting is tomorrow and I haven’t’ written the agenda yet! I need your help.
Part of speech – Fill in the chart with suitable answers
Synonyms – Give the most suitable synonym for given words or
III Circle the
My mother was born _________2nd July.
a) in b) on c)at
2. There were no phones _________17th century, they were invented ________1870s.
a) at/in b) in/in c) in/at
3. If everyone works nights shift we will be able to ______________.
a)catch up b) break down c) fall behind
4. We cannot have a meeting next Friday because Tim is away on business and he is the most important person for the meeting. We have to _______ it _____________ .
a) take …on b) make… up c) put …off
5. Sally isn’t employed but she has some part-time ______________.
a) work b) job c) employment
6. My best colleague is in charge ____________ financial reporting.
a) with b) of c) at
7. I am responsible __________ coordination between design and production.
a) for b) with c) at
8. We have analyzed the problem and I believe that we will find the solution if we ___________ it _________ into five stages.
a) draw…up b) break ….down c) put ….off
9. We started preparing for the job _________the morning.
a) in b) at c)on
IV Numbers – Write down the numbers as words:
V Comprehension –
Fill in the blanks with the given words or phrases:
What do you think, Why don’t we, What about, In my opinion, That’s a great idea, I don’t agree
A: Ok, let’s start with our first item on the agenda. Can we brainstorm some ideas, Jake?
B: Sure. _______________________, we should use our old selling strategy to do that. It will definitely work.
C: Well, ______________________. That strategy was bad and I believe we shouldn’t rely on it again. _______________________ try something new?
A: Hmm. I don’t know about it. __________________________, Mark?
D: Well, Let’s agree that the old strategy had only partial success, but I suppose we don’t have much time to think about some new ways to place the product. _____________________ asking some of our clients what they would like. Let’s do the survey and we’ll get the answers.
I Fill in the gaps
using the words given in the box:
despite, because of, however, although, but, and, since, in fact, due
to, even though, in case
the computer system failure, the tennis match was put off for
the workers have been prepared to use the data properly, most of
them made serious mistakes when using it.
colleague was sent to complete a business deal with a senior manager
________ the man did not show up.
did not accept Maria’s project ______________ she had put a lot of
effort in it.
We will leave
the lights on _____________ the baby wakes up.
the fact that Jack came on time, he didn’t arrive early enough to
get the goods.
manage to find my mentor _____________ the college was closed.
you left last night was badly done. It’s all in mess and the data
is incorrect. ________________, I would like you to do it all over
I believe that
the message they sent is rather clear ____________ I wouldn’t
spend any more time discussing it.
application was turned down ________________ badly written CV.
presentation of the program you have chosen to share was really
good. ______________, we couldn’t hear it quite well, the
microphone was off.
The man who we
were expecting to arrive phoned and said he would be half and hour
late. _______________ we didn’t have to stay there. We went for a
cup of coffee.
II Read the given email. Give a proper
reply, including suitable introduction, salutation, and all parts
needed to make it businesslike. You have to use at least 70
words. The additional information has been given to you.
To: Mrs Joanna Simms From: Michael Lightman Subject: Business contract
Dear Mrs Simms, We are very pleased to inform you that we are very satisfied with your latest delivery. The merchandise is of good quality, the paperwork is all neatly done, and, above all, you delivered the goods on time. We would like to talk about the chance of price. Please, consider the possibility of lowering the price if we order a bigger number of items. It would be great if we could have a meeting concerning these details next week. If you need any information, feel free to contact us. We look forward to hearing from you. Best regards, Michael Lightman
Information for answering the email:
Joanna Simms, an executive manager of Kickers Ltd, London, Refer to the mail (thank for the good comments) Give the basic conditions – only if they double the order, you consider the offer Arrange a meeting (Offer the date and time for a meeting) Give polite ending
Fill in with the suitable word or phrase:
Set your own prices, how to get the capital, if
you get it, for your service, work out your fixed costs, then add,
get organized, to set your own prices
started in business
you want to start a business, good planning is important. Here are
___________________________. Decide what your skills are. Find out
if there is a market of them in your area, e.g. ask your neighbors
what they need. Babysitting, coaching for exams or sports and
computer training ______________________.
Decide how much
money you need to start your business. Talk about
_____________________. You can use your own money or you can ask a
bank for a loan. _______________________, be sure you can afford to
pay the interest.
costs. First, _______________________, for example, the rent on your
office or the interest on a loan. ________________ your variable
costs, for example, for equipment, or tax.
Work out how
much to charge ________________________. Find out what other people
are charging and use this _______________________.
IVUse each word in box in the right context. One word is
I Fill in the gaps using the words given in the box:
despite, because of, however, although, but, and, since, in fact, due
to, even though, in case
I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep. It was so annoying!
My best friend
passed his Physics exam ___________________ he didn’t study much.
accepted the job ______________the salary, which was very high.
the fact that she didn’t feel well, she went to work.
They invested a
lot of money and effort into the advertising campaign.
________________, it didn’t bring any profit, they made a big
introduced a new item on the agenda _________________ his colleagues
were still discussing the previous one.
The office was
full of new employees ______________ it was very crowded.
She gave her
best to create a good design for the bottle but she neither showed
them on time nor told them about the main idea. _________________,
she was afraid not to be rejected.
the heavy rain, the football match is cancelled.
We are all
using newest software available at work, _________________ our job
is always done on time and perfectly.
enter the system _______________ she forgot the password.
I have to bring
an umbrella, ______________ it rains.
II Read the given email. Give a proper reply, including a suitable introduction, salutation, and all parts needed to make it businesslike. You have to use at least 70 words. The additional information has been given to you.
To: Mr Smith From: Tim Robins Subject: Business prospects
Dear Mr Smith, I am the Manager of the Heath Ltd company situated in London. We are willing to make business contact with your firm and try to improve our business with this cooperation. We have been working in computer service for the past 15 years. We make projects, designs, scripts, all kinds of PC programs. If you are interested, please, let us know about your main needs. We can email you the list of prices and terms of our work. It would be great if we could have a meeting concerning these details next week. If you need any information, feel free to contact us. We look forward to hearing from you. Best regards, Tim Robins
Information for answering the email: John Smith, an executive manager of Mack Ltd, Oxford, work with statistics Need a new computer system Want to pay in instalments Ask for references, prices Offer the date and time for a meeting
III Match the beginnings 1-6 with the endings a-f to make complete sentences:
We need a firm management strategy to take
I think we’ve missed
Unfortunately, we have been loosing
We really don‘t need to waste
I think you should have brought
I’d like to bring
a) Customers steadily over the last three years
b) up-date on your Korean marketing campaign.
c) control of the situation
d) These figures to my attention earlier.
e) Friday’s deadline.
f) Any more time on trying to change their minds,
IV Use each word in the box in the right context. One word is unnecessary.