Today people all over the world are moving out of small villages in the country to go and live in big, noisy cities. They are moving from the peaceful hills, mountains, fields, rivers and streams of the countryside to the busy world of streets, buildings, traffic and crowds. This movement from rural areas to urban areas is growing every day.
In many countries, the main reason people come to live in towns and cities is work. After one or two large factories have been built in or near a town, people come to find work, and soon an industrial area begins to grow. There is usually a residential area nearby, where the factory workers can live. The families of these workers need schools, hospitals and shops, so more people come to live in the area to provide these services.
In almost every city in the world, there is a business district where the big companies have their offices. In the United States, this area is usually in the city center downtown. People often travel a long way to work each day. They take a bus or a train, and rarely drive on their own – small parking places and expensive fares are the reason they leave their vehicles in garages. However, villages are becoming more popular since the working population needs some time off, relaxation and a healthy environment. Some villages have got wonderful resorts offering fresh food and clean water to those who wish to spend some time in less polluted and crowded areas.
People are moving from villages to cities because…
the traffic in villages is noisy.
there are residential areas near big factories.
they need jobs.
they need new houses.
Big companies worldwide…
have their offices in the United States.
have their offices in town centers.
build factories in residential areas.
provide services in residential areas.
Workers usually go to work…
by buses or by underground.
by other vehicles.
Those who work in cities like going to villages because…
they can start new businesses there.
they go on holiday there.
the parking spaces are expensive.
they are hungry and thirsty.
Towns and cities are …
offering clean water and healthy food.
offering wonderful village resorts.
less dirty and crowded.
more dirty and with too many people.
The conclusion of the story is that…
cities are useful for career opportunities so as villages are useful for health and fun.
workers influence the growth of villages.
villages are losing their population.
urban areas must have factories and residential areas as well.
Surprising presidential coincidences between Lincoln and Kennedy have been circulating in the press and on social networks for decades. Are the mentioned things true or just coincidence? Decide for yourself…
A.Lincoln and J.F. Kennedy
I Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the word in brackets:
Both presidents had 7 letters in their last name.
Both were over 6′ _______ (FOOT) tall.
Both men studied _______ (LAWFUL).
Both served in the military. Lincoln was a scout captain in the Black Hawk War, and Kennedy served as a navy lieutenant in World War II.
Both had no _______ (FRIGHTEN) of their mortality and disdained bodyguards.
Both Lincoln and Kennedy were _________ (FAME) for their wit and for telling hilarious stories and anecdotes.
Both presidents were shot in the head, on a Friday.
Both were seated beside their _______ (WIFE) when shot. Neither Mrs. Lincoln nor Mrs. Kennedy was ______ (INJURY).
One more ________ (SIMILAR): days before the murder happened Lincoln told his wife and friends about a dream he’d had of being shot by an assassin. Hours before the murder happened Kennedy told his wife and friends it would be _______ (EASILY) for an assassin to shoot him from a crowd.
Lincoln was shot in a theatre named Ford. Kennedy was shot in a car made by Ford. Kennedy was shot in a car named Lincoln.
Andrew Johnson, who killed Lincoln, was born in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, the Keneddy’s _________ (MURDER) was born in 1908.
Fill in the blanks with the right preposition, where necessary.
Family and Friends
Both presidents were named _______ their grandfathers.
Both were born ______ second children.
Both married while _______ their thirties. Lincoln married ________ 33 and Kennedy married at 36.
Both married dark-haired, twenty-four-year-old women.
Both wives died around the age ________ 64. Mary Todd Lincoln died _____ 1882 at age 63 years and 215 days, and Jackie Kennedy died in 1994 at age 64 years 295 days.
Each couple had four children two ________ whom died before becoming a teen.
Each couple lost a son while in the White House. Willie Lincoln died at age 12 in 1862, and Kennedy’s son Patrick died two days _______ his birth in 1963.
Lincoln’s secretary was named Kennedy. Kennedy’s secretary was named Lincoln.
Lincoln gave freedom _______ the black people and legalized equality. Kennedy enforced equality _______ the black.
Both presidents were elected _______ the House of Representatives in ’46.
Both were elected to the presidency _______ ’60.
Both Lincoln and Kennedy were loved _______ the common people and hated ________ the establishment.
III Look at the Lincoln’s and Kennedy’s quotes. Make the opposite of the words in italics to complete the quotes.
Abraham Lincoln “A friend is one who has the same __________ as you have.” “As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a ________. This expresses my idea of democracy. “
“I do not think much of a man who is not wiser today than he was _________.”
J.F.Kennedy “Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or ________ are certain to miss the future.” “It is an unfortunate fact that we can secure peace only by preparing for _______.” “The greater our knowledge increases the more our __________ unfolds.”
1 A purse is a small bag ______ people, usually women, use to carry money in.
2 A trainer is someone ______ teaches a skill through practice.
3 A gazelle is a kind of small antelope _______ can run very fast.
4 Reeboks, _______ live in Africa, belong to the gazelle family.
5 Nike, _______ means ‘victory’ in Greek, was an ancient goddess.
6 ‘Victorian’, _______ refers to the time _______ Queen Victoria ruled in England, is the period between 1837 and 1901.
7 A place _______ people of similar interests meet is called a club.
8 Reebok, _______ reputation is worldwide, has won many international prizes.
2 Relative pronouns. Complete this text using one appropriate word in each space.
Nike is an American manufacturer of sports clothes and shoes, (1) _______ has become very fashionable, particularly with young people. Nike, (2) _______ is pronounced ‘nikey’, is the goddess victory in Greek mythology. Nike, (3) _______ sat at the side of Zeus, was usually represented as a winged figure.
Caroline Davidson, a graphic design student at Portland State University, was commissioned to design the Nike ‘swoosh’ logo (4) _______ now appears on every pair of Nike shoes.
The Nike logo, for (5) ________ Davidson was paid only 35 dollars, captures the spirit of the goddess (6) ________ inspired the most courageous Greek warriors. Nike is the twentieth – century footwear (7) ________ helps the world’s greatest athletes win new victories.
1 Circle the answer with the appropriate word or phrase.
Which football team do you ________ ?
You will need to ________ hard to get a place on the Olympic team.
There were many ________ watching the tennis finals.
I think that Sam’s younger brothers ________ karate.
I hope our team doesn’t ________ the match on Saturday.
If our team manages to ________ another goal, they will be national champions!
They often________ jogging in the streets near their home.
Does Eddie ________ rugby for the university?
Roger Federer ________ the tennis record in the number of titles last year.
A Russian gymnast ________ a record in that event.
2 Which sports are described?
Some sportspeople think it should be banned. You need to be physically tough and have quick reflexes. You don’t need any equipment, just a pair of gloves and some lace-up boots.
Anyone can play this sport. All you need is a racket, a few balls and a court with a net across the middle. It can be played on grass or harder surfaces.
There are eleven players in a team. To win, a team has to score goals against their opponents. This means kicking a ball past the goalkeeper into a net.
It’s usually an individual sport. The equipment can be expensive. You need a set of clubs and lots of balls if you tend to lose quite a few.
Most people who are successful at this sport are very tall. Players need to be able to control a ball with their hands while running.
3 Fill in the gaps using ONE word only, which best fits each space.
Muhammad Ali, possibly the most famous athlete ___________, is certainly one of the most recognizable faces in the world history. Ali, ____________ proclaimed himself the ‘Greatest of All Time’, started fighting under the name of Cassius Clay. When he converted to Islam, he changed his name ____________ Muhammad Ali. Ali became world heavyweight champion ____________ the age of twenty-four and went on to become the first man ____________ win the heavyweight title three times. Both arrogant and charismatic, people loved him or hated him. His refusal to serve in the United States Army during the Vietnam war, saying that ____________ was against his religious beliefs, made ____________ unpopular with the authorities. He ____________ arrested, stripped of his heavyweight title and not allowed to box ____________ three years, ____________ many feel were his peak years. Ali was once asked on a TV show ____________ he would have done with his life given a choice. He replied that he ____________ not think of anything other than boxing. That is all he had ever wanted or wished ____________ . He couldn’t imagine doing anything ____________ .
Let’s take a closer look at the following sentences:
I couldn’t hear WHAT they were saying.
The man WHOM I saw on the bus the other day is Tom’s brother.
James didn’t phone, WHICH is very surprising.
My best friend Katherine, WHO happens to go to the same university as me, decided to leave her parents’ house and start living on her own.
All the listed examples above demonstrate the use of RELATIVE CLAUSES. The relative clauses can be (1) defining and (2) non-defining. Here’s the structure:
Some other ways of using Relative clauses:
who and which are more usual in written English whereas that is more usual in speech when referring to things:
That’s the boy (Ø, that, who, whom) I invited to the party.
That is the house (Ø, that, which) I’d like to buy.
1 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.
What’s the name of the man whose car you borrowed?
A cemetery is a place____________ people are buried.
A pacifist is a person ____________ believes that all wars are wrong.
An orphan is a child ____________ parents are dead.
What was the name of the person to ____________ you spoke on the phone?
The place ____________ we spent our holidays was really beautiful.
This school is only for children ____________ first language is not English.
The woman with ____________ he fell in love left him after a month.
2 Make one sentence from the two. Use who/that/which.
A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.
(The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.)
A waitress served us. She was impolite and impatient.
A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.
Some people were arrested. They have not been released.
A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half an hour.
3 Complete the text with what, which, whom, whose, who or that.
My friend Caroline, ____________ had always wanted to live in the country, finally decided to move. She wanted a house ____________ had at least three bedrooms. The first house she looked at was exactly ____________ she wanted – it was an old house with a lovely garden. But her sister, ____________ opinion she always respected, wasn’t very enthusiastic, as she thought the house needed a lot doing to it, ____________ would mean spending a lot more money. Caroline looked at other houses, none of ____________ were as nice as the first one. Eventually, she made up her mind to buy it. When she went to the lawyers to sign the contract she saw amongst the documents the personal details of the woman from ____________ she was buying it. The woman was born on 13th June 1963, exactly the same day as her! That coincidence was ____________ finally convinced her that the house was meant for her.