Types of Essays

Definition of Types of Essay

An essay is a short academic composition. The word “essay” is derived from a French word “essai” or “essayer,” which mean “trail.” In composition, however, an essay is a piece of non-fiction writing that talks or discusses a specific topic. Presently, essay is part of every degree program.

Effectively writing different types of essays has become critical to academic success. Essay writing is a common school assignment, a part of standardized tests, and a requirement on college applications. Often on tests, choosing the correct type of essay to write in response to a writing prompt is key to getting the question right. Clearly, students can’t afford to remain confused about types of essays.

There are over a dozen types of essays, so it’s easy to get confused. However, rest assured, the number is actually more manageable. Essentially there are four major types of essays, with the variations making up the remainder.

Four Major Types of Essays
Distinguishing between types of essays is simply a matter of determining the writer’s goal. Does the writer want to tell about a personal experience, describe something, explain an issue, or convince the reader to accept a certain viewpoint? The four major types of essays address these purposes:

1. Narrative Essays: Telling a Story
In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. While telling a story may sound easy to do, the narrative essay challenges students to think and write about themselves. When writing a narrative essay, writers should try to involve the reader by making the story as vivid as possible. The fact that narrative essays are usually written in the first person helps engage the reader. “I” sentences give readers a feeling of being part of the story. A well-crafted narrative essay will also build towards drawing a conclusion or making a personal statement.

2. Descriptive Essays: Painting a Picture
A cousin of the narrative essay, a descriptive essay paints a picture with words. A writer might describe a person, place, object, or even memory of special significance. However, this type of essay is not description for description’s sake. The descriptive essay strives to communicate a deeper meaning through the description. In a descriptive essay, the writer should show, not tell, through the use of colorful words and sensory details. The best descriptive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, with a result that is highly evocative.

3. Expository Essays: Just the Facts
The expository essay is an informative piece of writing that presents a balanced analysis of a topic. In an expository essay, the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and examples. Expository writing encompasses a wide range of essay variations, such as the comparison and contrast essay, the cause and effect essay, and the “how to” or process essay. Because expository essays are based on facts and not personal feelings, writers don’t reveal their emotions or write in the first person.

4. Persuasive Essays: Convince Me
While like an expository essay in its presentation of facts, the goal of the persuasive essay is to convince the reader to accept the writer’s point of view or recommendation. The writer must build a case using facts and logic, as well as examples, expert opinion, and sound reasoning. The writer should present all sides of the argument, but must be able to communicate clearly and without equivocation why a certain position is correct.

English 1

Test 2 (Conditionals, Comparison of Adjectives, Making Wh questions), post 3

I Use the right conditional:

  1. If my friends lived closer, I ____________________ (visit) them much more often.
  2. They wouldn’t have had any problem if they __________________ (take) your advice.
  3. If I ____________ (be) you, I ‘d be more careful with that project.
  4. I ________________(phone) you if there had been a phone in the village.
  5. If he _________________ (not do) what he promised, I’ll never speak to him again.
  6. Where ___________________________ (you/travel) if you had more money?
  7. He would have more money if he ________________ (not spend) too much on clothes.
  8. If you take on too many jobs, you ________________ (not do) a good job any of them.

II Write the comparative or the superlative of the given words:

  1. This is (enjoyable) ________________________ holiday I’ve ever been to.
  2. The ending of the book is (interesting) ____________________than the beginning.
  3. She made (bad) ____________________ mistake you could ever think of!
  4. Thomas is definitely (successful) _____________________ man I know!
  5. I had a (bad) ____________________ time at the party than at home.
  6. Can you walk a bit (slowly) __________________?
  7. The exam was fairly easy. (easy) _______________ than I expected.
  8. You are doing your job (seriously) ____________________ of all the people on the same position.

III Make questions to the referring words:

  1. Emma telephoned me last night.
  2. The film begins at 8.00.
  3. She isn’t working tonight because she is ill.
  4. I was born in London.
  5. Those people work with me.
  6. It was very cold yesterday.
  7. I have seen the artist twice.
  8. The accident happened unexpectedly.
English 1

Test 2 (Conditionals, Comparison of Adjectives, Making WH questions), post 2

I Use the right conditional:

  1. If my brother sees the car, he ___________________________ (buy) it.
  2. If the doctor _____________________ (tell) you to be careful, you would do that.
  3. If the match ___________________ (be) cancelled, I would know.
  4. The boys ____________________ (not finish) their homework if I hadn’t pushed them to.
  5. If you _______________________ (prepare) well, you would not have failed.
  6. He won’t get good marks if he ____________________ (not learn) what is necessary.
  7. If Peter ____________________ (not be) at home, we’d phone him.
  8. You ___________________ (not be) ill if you dressed more warmly.

II Write the comparative or the superlative of the following words:

  1. Next time you should be (serious) ____________________ about the exam!
  2. The Queen lives in (beautiful)_______________________castle in England.
  3. My granny makes (good) ___________________ cookies in the world!
  4. What’s (difficult) __________________ language to learn in the world?
  5. I was (happy) _________________ last summer than this year.
  6. Let me know if you hear any (far) _____________________ news.
  7. (bad) _______________ climate is in Siberia.
  8. She works (quickly) ___________________ than all her colleagues.

III Make questions to the referring words:

  1. She dances really beautifully.
  1. Her boss gave her a bonus salary.
  2. They were talking about the political issues in our country.
  3. She is 42 years old.
  4. The boys have lost their SONY play station 2 weeks ago.
  5. We were late for school yesterday.
  6. I use my computer very often.
  7. Many people will have robots in future.
English 1

Test 2 (Conditionals, Comparison of Adjectives, Making Wh questions), post 1

I Use the right conditional:

  1. He won’t go to the meeting if he (be, not) _______________________ invited.
  2. If I had prepared the papers earlier, we (get) ___________________________ the visa on time.
  3. If Fred (stop) ____________________ smoking, he will surely feel much better.
  4. If Dylan had fixed his van, he (use) _______________________ his insurance money for the car.
  5. I (not, watch) ___________________ that movie if it is so scary.
  6. Our house would have been cleaner if we (do) ____________________ the cleaning regularly.
  7. If you (not, leave) ____________________ your bags here, they wouldn’t find it otherwise.
  8. If I (go) ________________ to Moscow, I would speak Russian better.

II Write the comparative or the superlative of the following words:

  1. He was one of (ugly) ____________________ actors I’ve ever seen!
  2. That referee has always worked (correctly) ________________________ of all the others.
  3. (kind) _________________ thing he could ever do is to take me to that romantic place!
  4. Can you move a bit (close) __________________ to the gate, please?
  5. I had (bad) __________________ dream one can think of! A nightmare!
  6. He was so nervous that he changed the channels (quickly) ___________________ than he could see what was on.
  7. This is (late) ______________________ news we have heard.
  8. She is a journalist and she earns (much) _________________ money than her husband.

III Make questions to the referring words:

  1. They inherited 200,000 dollars from their uncle.
  2. I talked to Brian about the wedding ceremony.
  3. She can make an omelette quickly.
  4. The workers use their break properly.
  5. Mike typed emails on my PC.
  6. She studies every day after school.
  7. I invited your sister to the party.
  8. They were using the newest methods in these elections.
English 1

Tenses Practice 2

I Put the verbs in brackets into correct form:

  • Dear Mum, I (1) _________________ (just, arrive) to the college campus and the feeling (2) ____________ (be) great the whole week! Just unexpectedly, I (3) _____________ (run) into Sheila Johnson – the neighbor’s daughter yesterday afternoon. She (4) ______________ (be) surprised to see me, too, since she really (5) ______________ (not, know) that I (6) _______________ (plan) to come to the same college. Anyway, we (7) ______________ (go) out for a coffee and some chat, so we (8) _______________ (end) up talking about the subjects, the dormitory and all that stuff the whole night. Sheila (9) ______________ (always, have) excellent marks at elementary school, so I hope she (10) ______________ (help) me with Math and Sciences next semester. Right now, we (11) _____________ (sit) at the Art lecture and I (12) ___________________ (write) a letter to you. I just can’t help it! I must write a line or two to my favourite Mum! All the new people that I have met here (13) ____________ (be) kind and nice to me, and we usually (14) ____________ (hang) out together after classes. Don’t worry, I will be nice to them, too. Please, Mum, send some money. I (15) ________________ (already, spend) everything you (16) ___________ (give) me last week.
  • Love you! Your son, John

II Put the verbs in brackets into correct form:

  1. At the moment we __________________ (sit) in a café. We ________________ (wait) for the museum to open, so I ________________ (write) some postcards.
  2. Last year my neighbour ________________ (go) to Greece for his holiday. He ______________ (stay) on a small island, and he _____________ (claim) that it ____________ (be, not) expensive, but I _______________ (not, believe) him.
  3. I _____________ (visit) lots of different, unusual places so far. The best country I ____________ (be) to is France.
  4. Jill and Michael ___________________ (argue) a lot recently. They _______________ (need) some expert to help them.
  5. Laura decided to go to visit her sister last week. But, when Laura _________________ (arrive) to the bus station, the bus _____________________ (already, leave). Laura __________ (be) two hours late, because she ______________ (must) to wait for the next bus to come.
  6. I hope it ____________________ (not rain) tomorrow. I ___________________ (have) an important tennis match.
  7. Don’t phone between 3 and 4 p.m. They __________________________ (have) lunch then.
  8. By 2020 Jake __________________ (finish) his engineering project.
  9. I promise I __________________ (help) you, just let me finish my homework first.
  10. I am so exhausted. I _______________ (clean) the house all day long. And I ___________(not, finish) yet. There’s more to be done.
  11. A: ______________ (the party, be) good last night?
  12. B: Yes, lovely. Maria _____________ (organize) a wonderful buffet! We ___________ (dance) a lot, my feet ______________ (still, kill) me.

English 1

Tenses Practice 1

I Put the verbs in brackets into correct form:

  • Dear Hilda, I (1) ________________ (just, hear) that my mother (2) _______________(be) seriously ill since last Tuesday. I would like to go and see how she (3) _____________ (be). The trouble (4) ______________ (be) that I (5) _________________(can, not) take my dog Tim with me. (6) __________________(you, think) you can look after him for a week? You (7) _________________ (have) him for a week last year, and you (8) ________________ (say) he (9) _________________ (be) no trouble. If you (10) ________________ (be) able to have him, I (11) ______________ (bring) him on Friday morning. He (12) _________________ (have) his own bowl, and I’m sure you (13) __________________ (take) a good care of him. But if it (14) _________________ (be, not) convenient, (15) _________________ (not, hesitate) to say so. This time tomorrow I (16) ________________ (work) in my office. You (17) _________________ (can) call me there, and we (18) ________________ (talk) about it.
  • Love, Sarah

II Put the sentences into appropriate tense:

  1. Tina __________________ (come) to visit us every day. She ______________ (be) our neighbour since last year and I believe (get)_____________________ on well together.
  2. The Smiths _______________________(not change) their furniture last year, they _________________(do) it next week. They have already planned it.
  3. A: Why ____________________________(you/stand) there now?
  4. B: I ______________________________(wait) for the bus. In fact I (stand) ____________________ here for 35 minutes, and I’m sure it (not, come) ________________ at all!
  5. By the year 2017, my parents (marry) _____________________ for 30 years.
  6. A: Why _________________________________(John/fail) his exam two days ago?
  7. B: Because he __________________________(not /give) his best. He (think) _________________ the exam (be) ______________ easy, but he (be, not) _________________ right.
  8. Linda ________________(be) an excellent manager and she ___________
  9. (work) in a bank. She (not, go) ____________________ to work by bus, but this week she (go) _____________________ by bus because her car (be) __________________ broken.
  10. __________________________________(she / ever/ fly) by plane? – Yes, when I (travel) ______________ to Spain a couple of years ago.
  11. Tina _____________________________(must) buy some dog food last night , but she totally _______________________________(forget) about it.
  12. It is windy and cold . It ___________________________(rain) tomorrow.
  13. The Smiths sometimes ____________________(play) chess in the evening. Mrs Smith __________________(not like) golf. She (have) ______________”other fish to fry”.
  14. I (do) __________________ some small repairs in my kitchen all day yesterday. While I ______________________(glue) some wooden parts, the plumber ____________________ (fix) the tap. We (have) ___________________ so much work to do!
  15. Last Friday we (visit) ___________________ Mr Johnson. After we ___________________ (enter) the office, the secretary ___________________ (call) the boss.
English 2

E2 Test 1 Practice

I Grammar

I.1. Turn the given sentences into passive:

  • 1. He can wash the car tomorrow.
  • 2. The worker is repairing the bridge.
  • 3. You broke the vase unexpectedly.
  • 4. The students make projects once in a semester.
  • 5. Have you locked the door before I went out?

I.2. Combine the two sentences to make ONE. Use a relative pronoun:

  • 1. It is a novel. It takes place in Atlanta.
  • 2. That is the magazine. It arrived yesterday morning.
  • 3. My younger sister is interested in art history. She will enrol at the Faculty of Philosophy.
  • 4. London is a great city. Many famous people live there.

I.3. Supply the blanks with the appropriate question tag:

  1. They’ll invite us, _________________?
  2. Sam has a new bike, ________________?
  3. I’m fine now, __________________?
  4. All the boys made a mess, _______________?
  5. It wasn’t so cold yesterday, ______________?

I.4. Choose the correct participle to complete the sentences.

  • Charming/charmed disappointed/disappointing interested/interesting broken/breaking excited/exciting
  1. You must pay for the _______________________________window.
  2. My little sister was very ­­­­­­­­­­­­_________________________. It was her first time to visit the Zoo.
  3. Carroll is a ______________girl. Everybody likes her.
  4. We have heard very ________________news. The whole family was in shock.
  5. If anybody is ___________________in documentary films, please ask for further information.

II Vocabulary

II.1. Complete the sentences using the appropriate form of the word given in brackets:

  1. You need to _______________________with money. You will not always be so fortunate. (ECONOMY)
  2. _____________________ between people should always be decent.(COMMUNICATE)
  3. We must _________________our teachers to the prom. Students always do that. (INVITATION)
  4. The film was full of ____________________crime scenes. (VIOLENCE)
  5. If you want to feel ________________ in your own home, play some music and draw the curtains. (PLEASE)
  6. His _____________________to apply for the job was unexpected. (DECIDE)

II.2. Fill in using ONE word only:

  1. Even if Smith’s next film is a flop, he is ___________________.
  2. For a good tennis match, you just need a racket and some balls. Take your best friend to the right place – tennis __________ and have some fun!
  3. The average pre-schooler laughs 400 times a day. That number ________ to only 15 times a day by the time people reach 35.
  4. The internal combustion ________, which the car cannot do without, is rated as one of the worst inventions of all time.
  5. The possibility of a failure ___________ my mind for a second, but I moved on and didn’t think on bad things.
  6. Many sportsmen are very ___________ so they do funny things such as touching the ground or making silly movements to bring good luck.

II.3. Give the synonymous words or the expressions for the given words/expressions:

  1. witty ___________________________
  2. bizzare _________________________
  3. scar ____________________________
  4. recall ___________________________
  5. athlete __________________________

II.4. Circle the word which best fits the blank space:

  • You need a great level of ______________________ in order to be successful.
  • A) commitment B) know C) money D) laziness
  • Sportsmen who get caught cheating are usually __________ from further competitions.
  • A) banned B) removed C) quit D) defeat
  • The __________ murderer was arrested and taken to prison to wait for the trial.
  • A) home-made B) king-sized C) cold-blooded D) fat-free
  • At the end of a tiring journey, John was ___________ starving since he didn’t have time to eat.
  • A) very B) absolutely C) rather D) really
  • When I saw the girl I was in loved with, I ________ with embarrassment and ran away.
  • A) nodded B) fainted C) blushed D) trembled

III Comprehension

III. 1 Read the text and find the answers to the questions:


Urban legends or modern legends are stories or gossips, which seem to be true and are either published in the media, the Internet or told among people. They are usually very exciting and their fascinating subject matter provokes the listeners to retell it further. They can be local, but usually aren’t – they concern well-known people and common things, that’s why they can spread among the whole country or even abroad. They can have many different variants.

Usually anonymous and seemingly very probable, urban legends concern everyday life and important matters such as food or security. Many people still believe that a famous drink, Coca-cola contains cocaine, or that a microwave, if not used properly, can explode.

A belief that shaving and cutting hair makes it grow thicker and darker is also a misconception.

Some more familiar legends try to convince us that there is a monster in the Loch Ness Lake in the UK, and every now and then people say that they have seen or taken photos of the famous monster. It is good for tourism, of course, but no one proved the legend true. Another legend concerning animals is that there are alligators beneath the streets of New York which live completely hidden from the human eyes.

Although many people believe in these stories, all of them have a rational explanation which makes urban legends just nice, unusual myths.

  1. Urban legends make people…
    1. worry too much about their security.
    2. tell them further on.
    3. provoke them to investigate on the Internet.
    4. invest in tourism.
  1. The authors of urban legends are…
    1. unknown people.
    2. celebrities.
    3. people who work in the media.
    4. writers.
  1. Some people think that Coca-cola …
    1. contains drugs.
    2. can explode in a microwave.
    3. makes your hair thicker.
    4. is made in New York.
  1. The Loch Ness Monster …
    1. lives beneath the streets of New York.
    2. can take photos.
    3. is, in fact, an alligator.
    4. attracts new visitors.
  1. All urban legends…
    1. can be logically explained.
    2. are bizarre myths.
    3. are hidden from the human eyes.
    4. refer to urban areas only.

Business Test 1 Practice 2

I Tenses – Present Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple:

  1. A: Where (the meeting, be) ____________________? In the main office? B: I (not, know) ____________________. I (just, arrive) ____________________ from the warehouse, but I can check it.
  2. Can you hold, please? I (type) ____________________ something on my computer.
  3. Out team (work) _______________ just fine. We (employ) __________________ some new people since last October and we are very satisfied with their work.

II Countables/Uncountables – Complete the dialogue with the words in the box:

a lot of, much, many, a little, a few

  1. Barak Obama’s speech didn’t surprise me _____________. I expected him to say that.
  2. Only ______________ people came to the meeting so we had to postpone it.
  3. How ___________ litars of milk does a family need for a day?
  4. _______________ students have done the survey so the date is quite plausible and correct.
  5. For this recipe you need just _____________ eggs. Take two, for example.
  6. She gave me _______________ money for the trip I can’t buy even a postcard with it.

III Obligation and necessity – Fill in using: have to, has to, didn’t have to, had to, needn’t, mustn’t

  1. All students __________________ listen to the teacher during the lesson.
  2. You _________________ smoke in the premises. There’s NO SMOKING sign.
  3. We had so much trouble with that supplier. Finally, we _______________ cancel the order because we weren’t quite sure how it was going to work.
  4. You __________________ put the milk in the coffee. I already pour some.
  5. The management students __________________ take an exam in English last week, because they could sit for it in another term. They could choose.
  6. Tim really ___________________ pay attention to his appearance. His hair is too long and in a mess, and his shoes need polishing.

IV Suggestion. Suggest a suitable solution to the given problem using relevant words or phrases:

  • Why don’t we…What about…? We should…We shouldn’t…Let’s…
  • 1. We must hand out the project tomorrow.
  • 2. We don’t have legal breaks for breakfast at my firm.
  • 3. I am new in this department.
  • 4. We have a seminar next month. I want to go.


I Part of speech – Fill in the chart with suitable answers

noun verb adjective

to manage manageable

to motivate motivated

to grow grown

to develop developed

II Synonyms – Give the most suitable synonym for given words or expressions:

  1. redundancy
  2. staff
  3. advanced
  4. freelance
  5. objective
  6. data

III Circle the correct answer

  1. The meeting starts ______ eight o’clock ________ the evening. a) in/at b) at/on c) at/in
  2. The Obama inauguration started ______ time. a) in b)at c)on
  3. Is it ok with you if I leave now? I will _____________ it ______ on Monday. a) take …on b) make… up c) put …off
  4. She surely has _______________ too much work. She will have to stay longer today. a) caught up b)broken down c) taken on
  5. They have _______________ with the work on the constructing projects; they won’t finish it until the deadline. a) fallen behind b) got on with c) drawn up
  6. We have to inform them about the delays. It is our fault but they must know that we have to _____________ the delivery. a) catch up b) put off c) break down
  7. She needs a new __________________. She got a sack last month. a) job b) work c) employment
  8. I deal ___________ a lot of different people in the company. a) with b) at c) to

IV Numbers- Write down the numbers as words:

  1. 15%
  2. 21st
  3. 0.86
  4. 5,218,104
  5. 12/6/08
  6. 2/4

Business Test 1 Practice 1


I Tenses – Present Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple:

  • 1. Many big companies __________________(not have) canteens for their employees.
  • 2. We ______________________(invest) in our computing system a lot recently, and just a month ago our human resource manager _________________ (make) an agreement to do more in the field of education of the employees.
  • 3. I’m afraid, you can’t talk to Mr Johnson right now. He ______________________(have) a board meeting in his office.
  • 4. Where ______________________ (we, put away) used paper? In the box over there?
  • 5. Beacuse of their enormous success, COCA-COLA _____________________ (be) one of the main drinks producers in this area for decades.
  • 6. In 2002. our company _________________ (be) equipped with very basic machinery, so the management _____________________(decide) to buy some new ones.

II Countables/Uncountables – Complete the dialogue with the words in the box: a lot of, much, many, a little, a few

  • A: Is the agenda ready for tomorrow’s meeting? We haven’t got _____________ time left, you know that.
  • B: Yes, I’ve done it. I had ____________ things planned to put it in, but I managed to make it short and put everything into 5 items.
  • A: Very well. _______________ colleagues informed me that they can’t make it to the meeting. Take their names, please.
  • B: Sure. How ______________ of them said they’re away on business?
  • A: I don’t know now. But I will check it later. Let’s have a coffee break now. Please, pass me the sugar. Just _____________, please.
  • B: Ok, but you can have just __________________ minutes, because we have _______________ work to do!
  • A: I’ll be done quickly. You know I don’t need ___________________ to get back to the track!

III Future – fill in the blanks using the right future form.

  1. So, everyone, let’s start! Susan, (you, open) _________________________ the meeting, please?
  2. Look out! The laptop (fall) ________________________ off your desk!
  3. In the near future, small businesses (definitely, lose) _______________________ major part od the consumer population.
  4. Well, I’m not quite sure, but we (try) _____________________ with making our strategy more efficient, and we’ll see.
  5. I’m having an important meeting in London tomorrow morning and I and my colleague (stay) ____________________ the London hotel.
  6. A: I need to see some price-lists now.
  7. B: Ok, I (not, keep) ______________________ you with the chart, then. Here’s your price-list.

IV Obligation and necessity – Fill in using: have to, has to, didn’t have to, had to, needn’t, mustn’t

  1. Thanks for the email. I got it yesterday, but I saw it wasn’t urgent and that I _____________________ answer right away, so I left it for later.
  2. You _______________ smoke in here! That’s forbidden!
  3. Mike _______________ get up early if he wants to get ready for the presentation properly.
  4. The parcels were all wrong! We _______________open them all, and put some new labels!
  5. If you want to apply for the job, you __________________ send an application form.
  6. Tell Maria that she __________________ send the contract, I have one copy here with me. She can keep hers.

V Suggestion. Suggest a suitable solution to the given problem using relevant words or phrases:

  • 1. We have taken on too much work lately.
  • 2. Maria has been talking on the phone for the whole morning!
  • 3. I am always late for work.
  • 4. The meeting is tomorrow and I haven’t’ written the agenda yet! I need your help.


I Part of speech – Fill in the chart with suitable answers

noun verb adjective

to employ un/employed
responsibility /

to qualify qualified
strenght to strengthen

po perform /

to decide decisive

II Synonyms – Give the most suitable synonym for given words or expressions:

  1. to provide
  2. to manage
  3. to postpone
  4. executive
  5. freelance
  6. redundancy
  7. staff
  8. income

III Circle the correct answer

  • My mother was born _________2nd July.
  • a) in b) on c)at
  • 2. There were no phones _________17th century, they were invented ________1870s.
  • a) at/in b) in/in c) in/at
  • 3. If everyone works nights shift we will be able to ______________.
  • a)catch up b) break down c) fall behind
  • 4. We cannot have a meeting next Friday because Tim is away on business and he is the most important person for the meeting. We have to _______ it _____________ .
  • a) take …on b) make… up c) put …off
  • 5. Sally isn’t employed but she has some part-time ______________.
  • a) work b) job c) employment
  • 6. My best colleague is in charge ____________ financial reporting.
  • a) with b) of c) at
  • 7. I am responsible __________ coordination between design and production.
  • a) for b) with c) at
  • 8. We have analyzed the problem and I believe that we will find the solution if we ___________ it _________ into five stages.
  • a) draw…up b) break ….down c) put ….off
  • 9. We started preparing for the job _________the morning.
  • a) in b) at c)on

IV Numbers – Write down the numbers as words:

  1. 25%
  2. 22nd
  3. 0.58
  4. 1,156,218
  5. 5/3/08
  6. 2/3
  7. ext.154
  8. 2m 60

V Comprehension – Fill in the blanks with the given words or phrases:

  • What do you think, Why don’t we, What about, In my opinion, That’s a great idea, I don’t agree
  • A: Ok, let’s start with our first item on the agenda. Can we brainstorm some ideas, Jake?
  • B: Sure. _______________________, we should use our old selling strategy to do that. It will definitely work.
  • C: Well, ______________________. That strategy was bad and I believe we shouldn’t rely on it again. _______________________ try something new?
  • A: Hmm. I don’t know about it. __________________________, Mark?
  • D: Well, Let’s agree that the old strategy had only partial success, but I suppose we don’t have much time to think about some new ways to place the product. _____________________ asking some of our clients what they would like. Let’s do the survey and we’ll get the answers.
  • A: Oh, ________________________! Great job, Mark!

Test 2 Practice 2

I Fill in the gaps using the words given in the box:

Therefore, despite, because of, however, although, but, and, since, in fact, due to, even though, in case
  1. ______________ the computer system failure, the tennis match was put off for tomorrow.
  2. ______________ the workers have been prepared to use the data properly, most of them made serious mistakes when using it.
  3. David’s colleague was sent to complete a business deal with a senior manager ________­­­ the man did not show up.
  4. The committee did not accept Maria’s project ______________ she had put a lot of effort in it.
  5. We will leave the lights on _____________ the baby wakes up.
  6. ______________ the fact that Jack came on time, he didn’t arrive early enough to get the goods.
  7. I didn’t manage to find my mentor _____________ the college was closed.
  8. The paperwork you left last night was badly done. It’s all in mess and the data is incorrect. ________________, I would like you to do it all over again.
  9. I believe that the message they sent is rather clear ____________ I wouldn’t spend any more time discussing it.
  10. Sarah’s application was turned down ________________ badly written CV.
  11. The video presentation of the program you have chosen to share was really good. ______________, we couldn’t hear it quite well, the microphone was off.
  12. The man who we were expecting to arrive phoned and said he would be half and hour late. _______________ we didn’t have to stay there. We went for a cup of coffee.

II Read the given email. Give a proper reply, including suitable introduction, salutation, and all parts needed to make it businesslike. You have to use at least 70 words. The additional information has been given to you.

To: Mrs Joanna Simms From: Michael Lightman Subject: Business contract

Dear Mrs Simms, We are very pleased to inform you that we are very satisfied with your latest delivery. The merchandise is of good quality, the paperwork is all neatly done, and, above all, you delivered the goods on time.
We would like to talk about the chance of price. Please, consider the possibility of lowering the price if we order a bigger number of items.
It would be great if we could have a meeting concerning these details next week.
If you need any information, feel free to contact us. We look forward to hearing from you.
Best regards, Michael Lightman
Information for answering the email:

Joanna Simms, an executive manager of Kickers Ltd, London, Refer to the mail (thank for the good comments) Give the basic conditions – only if they double the order, you consider the offer Arrange a meeting (Offer the date and time for a meeting) Give polite ending

III Fill in with the suitable word or phrase:

Set your own prices, how to get the capital, if you get it, for your service, work out your fixed costs, then add, get organized, to set your own prices

Getting started in business

If you want to start a business, good planning is important. Here are some tips.

  1. ___________________________. Decide what your skills are. Find out if there is a market of them in your area, e.g. ask your neighbors what they need. Babysitting, coaching for exams or sports and computer training ______________________.
  2. Decide how much money you need to start your business. Talk about _____________________. You can use your own money or you can ask a bank for a loan. _______________________, be sure you can afford to pay the interest.
  3. Calculate your costs. First, _______________________, for example, the rent on your office or the interest on a loan. ________________ your variable costs, for example, for equipment, or tax.
  4. Work out how much to charge ________________________. Find out what other people are charging and use this _______________________.

IV Use each word in box in the right context. One word is unnecessary.

fabrics, shares, revenue, venue, ice-breaking, merger, rut, respond, pollution

  1. I am so unhappy with my work…I feel bored and somehow in a ____________ . I’m doing the same routine job and it really got boring.
  2. Apart from choosing the presentation equipment, the ______________ is very important. So, inform everybody of the place where your presentation will take place.
  3. Sony and Erickson decided to join their companies and they became a ________________.
  4. The water _________________ is something that is becoming a big part of public concern for healthy living.
  5. When you see a foreigner for the first time, try starting an __________________ conversation.
  6. The company decided to keep their ________________ in the shoe industry because they were convinced the shoe market was going to get bigger and stronger.
  7. They dye and cut their own _______________ in Spain.
  8. We sent them an invitation two weeks ago, but, unfortunately, they didn’t ________________.