English 2

Judging by appearances (Reading + Vocabulary)

1 Read the text below and find out:

  1. the number of years Paul has been unemployed
  2. two things that create a good impression with many employers
  3. what Americans think of tall people
  4. what Americans think of physically attractive people
  5. the reason why attractive people do not always get the best jobs
  6. three things that make you look nervous
  7. where you should look at an interviewer in England.

  • Paul Smith is 25. He left university two years ago. He has been to twenty-five interviews and hasn’t found a job. However, he won’t change his appearance to try and get work. ‘This is the way I look. You can take it or leave it. People should look at my qualifications, not my hair,’ he says.
  • Unfortunately for Paul, first impressions are vital. For many employers, neat and tidy hair and smart clothes are as important as qualifications. An interview may last half an hour or more, but the decision to hire or not is usually taken in the first minutes, sometimes even before the interviewee has spoken.
  • So what factors contribute to that vital first impression? It varies a lot according to our culture. For example, in the United States tall people are considered more reliable and serious in business. Physically attractive people are thought of as warmer, kinder, more sociable and even more intelligent although they are not always as lucky as we think – some people think they are irresponsible and immature so they don’t give them the best jobs.
  • We can’t do much about our height or how good-looking we are but we can control our body language. For example, if you hang your head and play with your hair or hold your hand over your mouth you may seem nervous or dishonest.
  • It is also important to look in the right place. In Britain and America it is appropriate to look the interviewer more or less in the eyes. Unfortunately, people from some cultures can find this quite difficult because they do not look directly at strangers.

VOCABULARY

1 Find the (underlined) words in the text which mean:

  1. friendly, outgoing ______________________
  2. important, necessary, crucial _____________________
  3. insincere, false, untrustworthy ____________________
  4. fashionable, neat, chic ___________________________
  5. act as a factor, give support (money or ideas) ____________________
  6. not fully mentally grown or developed _______________________
  7. dependable, responsible, trustworthy ___________________

2 You have come across the adjectives with negative prefixes (DIShonest, IMmature, IRresponsible) in the text. Make the given adjectives negative by adding prefixes dis-, im-, il-, un-, ir-, in-.

  1. I’ll help you in a minute! Don’t be so ______________ (mature)!
  2. She never learnt to read or write, she was completely ________________ (literate).
  3. You’ve broken my favourite cup! How _____________ (responsible)! I’ll never find another one.
  4. Children tend to be ___________ (obedient) if there’s no one to teach them discipline.
  5. Sorry, Pete. That’s _____________ (correct). Anybody has got a correct answer?
  6. Those clothes are highly _____________ (acceptable) for the prom night. Go and get changed.
  7. I did all the work and she got all the credit for it. That’s so__________ (fair)!
  8. You paid $ 20 for a sandwich?! That’s ______________ (believable)! You must be joking!
  9. It’s ____________ (legal) to possess a gun if you don’t have a license for it.
  10. I wouldn’t say his sister is ______________ (attractive), I would just say that she doesn’t wear clothes that suit her figure.

3 Body idioms. Choose the correct part of the body from the list to fill the gaps in the idioms in italics in the sentence. There are two more words than you need.

arm feet hair legs nose back finger head neck tongue

  1. Her father says ‘Yes’ to everything she asks for. She can twist him round her little _____________.
  2. I wouldn’t get too friendly with John if I were you. He’s quite likely to stab you in the ______________.
  3. I stayed up and watched the late horror film on TV last night. It really was frightening. It made my ___________ stand on end.
  4. By the time children are sixteen or seventeen, they’ve learnt to stand on their own two ____________.
  5. I’d give my right ___________ for a ticket to the Olympic Games.
  6. As usual, I’ve got too much work to do, but I’m just about managing to keep my _____________ above water.
  7. The person sitting behind me was a real pain in the ____________. He talked all the way through the film.
  8. I can’t remember her name – it’s driving me mad – it’s on the tip of my ______________
English 2

Question tags practice

1 Fill the blanks with a suitable tag.

  1. David spends a lot of money on clothes, _________________?
  2. You haven’t done your homework, ___________________?
  3. Let’s go for a walk, ___________________?
  4. The employers were on a meeting yesterday, __________________?
  5. She won’t be here on time, _________________?
  6. You spent the day with your boyfriend, _______________?
  7. They’ll invite us, _________________?
  8. Sam has a new bike, ________________?
  9. I’m fine now, __________________?
  10. All the boys made a mess, _______________?
  11. It wasn’t so cold yesterday, ______________?

English 1

Giving Opinion (vocabulary practice)

1 Read the text below. Translate the highlighted words and expressions in the given context.

  • Dave: I read yesterday in the papers that three new state universities are opening soon.
  • Brian: Apparently, the government wants to increase the number of young people going to university. What do you think about that?
  • Dave: Personally, I think it’s a good idea. People should have a chance to go to university.
  • Brian: Maybe, but it seems to me that we need more people with manual skills, not more academics. And why haven’t we got those people? It’s the government’s fault.
  • Dave: You think that the government is to blame for everything. But isn’t it a good idea, in principle, for more young people to have a better education?
  • Brian: Yes, I think education is an incredibly important issue, but the point is, what kind of education do we want young people to have?
  • Dave: If you ask me, that’s a wonderful thing. The youngsters will choose what to study based on their interests.
  • Brian: As far as I’m concerned, the university is not the only place where you can learn things. You can learn a lot without formal education if you know what I mean.
  • Dave: I believe that having new universities is opening new possibilities for personal improvement, and other ways of education are in the second place.
Word bank
apparently – based on what you have heard or read
What do you think about…?
How do you feel about…? – asking about somebody’s opinion
fault – mistake
be to blame for – be responsible for
in principle – in theory
issue – a problem, a subject of discussion
the point is – the most important part of what I’m saying
If you ask me / As far as I am concerned – I personally believe
If you know what I mean – I hope you understand

PRACTICE

1 Rewrite the opinions using the words in brackets. The meaning must be the same.

  • a) I think it will be difficult. (EASY) I don’t think it will be easy.
  • b) I think we should do something. (SEEMS)
  • c) What do you think about that? (FEEL)
  • d) I think we should help them. (OPINION)
  • e) It’s my fault. (BLAME)

2 Complete the sentences using the mentioned phrases.

  • a) As far as I am _________________, the most important thing is to find the right university.
  • b) We both agree on that, but the ____________ is, what are we going to do with the unemployed?
  • c) I think that climate change is one of the most important ______________ of the 21st century.
  • d) The manager is responsible for the delivery delay, so it is his ______________.
  • e) ______________, nobody wants to invest in education nowadays.

3 Give your opinion on the given issues using the mentioned phrases.

  • a) There will be more wars in future.
  • b) It is more expensive to live in a village than in the city.
  • c) Pop music is for kids.
  • d) CDs are not needed any more – you can download whatever you need.
  • e) Italian food is tasteless.

4 Circle the right word or phrase.

  • a) What do you think of/about my new car?
  • b) It is not your blame/fault.
  • c) It looks/seems to me that we need this.
  • d) Apparently/Personally, they made the wrong choice.
  • e) It is an important issue/opinion, but some talks are yet to be done.
English 1

Fun Facts about London: The Present Simple Tense Practice

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets:

  1. London (1) _________ (consist) of two ancient cities which (2) _______ (be) now joined together. They ______ (be) the City of London, or the City and the City of Westminster. Together they all _______ (make) up a region known as Greater London.
  2. London ______ (be) the biggest city in Britain and in Europe. It ________ (occupy) over 620 square miles.
  3. London _______ (have) a population of 8 million people.
  4. There ________ (be) over 100 theatres in London and 105 cinemas.
  5. The new Wembley Stadium _______ (be) the largest football stadium in the world.
  6. It _______ (take) 61 seconds to open Tower Bridge, which ________ (open) about 1,000 times a year.
  7. Big Ben ______ (have) the 13-ton bell inside the clock.
  8. London’s 395 public libraries _________ (stock) 17 million books.
  9. The Brits _______ (lose) about 80,000 umbrellas every year on the London Underground.
  10. There _____ (be) over 30,000 John Smiths in Britain.
  11. The River Thames, which ________ (flow) through London, has over 200 bridges and 20 tunnels. It ________ (be) a combination of four rivers.
  12. You _______ (can) hear more than 300 languages in the streets of London.
  13. The English _____ (be) tea addicts: an Englishman __________ (drink) more tea than any person of any other nation (over twenty times more than Americans).
English 1

Gerund and Infinitive Practice + KEY

2 Put the verbs in brackets into gerund or infinitive:

  1. He left the room without (close) ___________ the door.
  2. I promised (call) _________ you, but I was busy (sort) __________ the letters.
  3. Silvia enjoys (listen) _________ to music in her room.
  4. Forgive me for (talk) _________ like this.
  5. My father doesn’t let me (go) __________ to the pubs late at night.
  6. It’s no use (cry) _________ over spilt milk.
  7. I really like (sleep) __________ in my sister’s bed.
  8. Let me be the first (tell) ____________ you the news.
  9. He decided (visit) ____________ his relatives in Japan.
  10. Was he interested in (study) ____________ languages?
  11. All books are worth (read) ____________.
  12. Please, let me (do) _________ that for you!
  13. He started (drink) __________ again.
  14. He said he would prefer (drive) __________ a car to (be) __________ driven.
  15. She goes (swim) ___________ with her brother twice a week.
  16. I would be very happy (receive) ___________any information that could help me.
  17. The exercise is too difficult for me (do) _________ it.
  18. You can’t help (eat) ___________ so many sweets.
  19. Women enjoy (gossip) ____________.
  20. (smoke) ___________ is not allowed here.
  21. I wanted (ask) __________ you (come) _________ with me to the party next week.
  22. My friends taught me how (write) __________ a CV.
  23. You may (take) __________ my coat if you like.
  24. It was nice of you (invite) __________ Tina to the meeting.
  25. He is always looking forward to (meet) ___________ and (talk) ___________ to us.

KEY

  1. He left the room without closing the door.
  2. I promised to call you, but I was busy sorting the letters.
  3. Silvia enjoys listening to music in her room.
  4. Forgive me for talking like this.
  5. My father doesn’t let me go to the pubs late at night.
  6. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
  7. I really like sleeping in my sister’s bed.
  8. Let me be the first to tell you the news.
  9. He decided to visit his relatives in Japan.
  10. Was he interested in studying languages?
  11. All books are worth reading.
  12. Please, let me do that for you!
  13. He started drinking again.
  14. He said he would prefer driving a car to being driven.
  15. She goes swimming with her brother twice a week.
  16. I would be very happy to receive any information that could help me.
  17. The exercise is too difficult for me to do it.
  18. You can’t help eating so many sweets.
  19. Women enjoy gossiping.
  20. Smoking is not allowed here.
  21. I wanted to ask you to come with me to the party next week.
  22. My friends taught me how to write a CV.
  23. You may take my coat if you like.
  24. It was nice of you to invite Tina to the meeting.
  25. He is always looking forward to meeting and talking to us.
English 2

Reported Speech – Paraphrasing Practice +Key

Rewrite the sentences in indirect speech using the verb given! Add prepositions where needed.

  • “Milli Vanilli lip-synched all the time,” the manager said. ADMITTED
  • “I will call you back” she said. OFFERED
  • “You lied to me” he shouted. ACCUSED
  • “You should see that play,” Peter said. RECOMMENDED
  • “We are the best team in the championship,” the player said. BOASTED
  • “Don’t believe him,” my mother said. WARNED
  • “Let’s go swimming,” he said. SUGGESTED
  • “Shall I help you?” the gentleman said. OFFERED
  • “I’m sorry I’m late,” the student said. APOLOGIZED
  • “You let him fall,” she said. BLAMED
  • “Stop talking at once!” the teacher said. ORDERED
  • “Your essay is not good enough.” she said. COMPLAINED/ABOUT
  • “You should try harder” my teacher advised. SUGGESTED
  • “You mustn’t talk during the exam!” the examiner said. FORBADE
  • “Please, don’t play the drums while your sister is sleeping.” my mother said. ASKED
  • “It’s a very delicate case.” the detective said. EXPLAINED
  • “Please, please, don’t kill me.” the hostage said. BEGGED
  • “Stop the car or I’ll start screaming.” she said. THREATENED
  • “I didn’t sell you car.” George said. DENIED
  • “You never listen to me.” Susan said. COMPLAINED
  • “I’ll be more careful next time.” Simon said. PROMISED
  • “You shouldn’t try it once more.” my friend said. DISCOURAGED
  • “No, I won’t tell you the answer.” he said. REFUSED

KEY

  • ADMITTED The manager admitted that Milli Vanilli lip-synched all the time. /The manager admitted (to) Milli Vanilli’s lip-synching all the time
  • OFFERED She offered to call me back.
  • ACCUSED He accused me of lying to him.
  • RECOMMENDED He recommended seeing that play.
  • BOASTED The player boasted about being/playing in the best team in the championship.
  • WARNED My mother warned me not to believe him.
  • SUGGESTED He suggested going swimming./He suggested that we go swimming.
  • OFFERED The gentleman offered to help me.
  • APOLOGIZED The student apologized for being late.
  • BLAMED She blamed him/her for letting him fall.
  • ORDERED The teacher ordered me/us to stop talking at once.
  • COMPLAINED/ABOUT She complained to me about my essay not being good enough.
  • SUGGESTED My teacher suggested my trying harder./ The teacher suggested that I try harder.
  • FORBADE The examiner forbade us to talk during the exam.
  • ASKED My mother asked me not to play the drums while my sister was sleeping.
  • EXPLAINED The detective explained that it was a very delicate case.
  • BEGGED The hostage begged me not to kill him/her.
  • THREATENED She threatened to start screaming if I didn’t stop the car.
  • DENIED George denied selling/having sold my car.
  • COMPLAINED Susan complained that I never listen to her. OR
  • Susan complained to me about my never/not listening to her.
  • PROMISED Simon promised to be more careful next time.
  • DISCOURAGED My friend discouraged me from trying it/that once more/another time.
English 2

Word Formation Practice 1

  1. A: What is the _______ of the Big Ben? (HIGH)
  2. B: I am not sure but perhaps it is more than fifty meters.
  3. My grandparents have great experience and life _______. (WISE)
  4. Don’t go there if you are _______ of mice. There are thousands of mice there. (FEAR)
  5. Don’t be too _______ of her decision. She hates it! (CRITICISE)
  6. My boyfriend is a very _______ person. He will never give up and keep on fighting to win. (PERSIST)
  7. The ______ of all flights was due to the bad weather. (CANCEL)
  8. Joe has great _______ in himself. That is why he never gives up easily. (CONFIDE)
  9. Out of our sheer _______, we started making up silly stories. (BORING)
  10. She is just _______ of mine. I don’t know her well. (ACQUAINT)
  11. It has been snowing all night so there is a great ______ that there all tomorrow’s flights will be cancelled. (LIKE)
  12. You may use this computer and this mobile phone whenever you want. It is at your _______. (DISPOSE)
  13. The negotiations have proven more _______ than any of us expected. (TROUBLE)
  14. Marlene Dietrich was _______ through her roles in films like ‘The Blue Angel’.(MORTAL)
  15. He was _______ in 1965 for attempted murder.(PRISON)
  16. I can’t get the _______car to start! (BLEED)
  17. He stopped at a bar for a little _______.(FRESH)
  18. Although they said nothing, she could sense their _______ of her suggestion. (APPROVE)
  19. I love spending time in a _______ regions. (MOUNTAIN)
  20. It was _______ not to phone and say you’d be late. (THINK)

KEY:

  • 1.HEIGHT
  • 2.WISDOM
  • 3. FEARFUL-AFRAID
  • 4. CRITICAL
  • 5.PERSISTENT
  • 6.CANCELLATION
  • 7.CONFIDENCE
  • 8.BOREDOM
  • 9.ACQUAINTANCE
  • 10.LIKELIHOOD
  • 11.DISPOSAL
  • 12.TROUBLESOME
  • 13. immortalized
  • 16. bloody
  • 17. refreshment
  • 18. disapproval
  • 19. mountainous
  • 20. thoughtless
Business

Writing Connectors (introduction)

  • If you want to make your writing easier to read and more eloquent, using the connectors in the correct places is a must. Start using connectors to give your writing more flow and more style. Different types of connectors are used according to the logical relationship they establish between one sentence and another. Also known as conjunctions, these linkers can express contrast, cause, purpose, consequence, addition, and exemplification.

CONTRAST

  • Although/ though/ Even though + full sentence +comma / Even so+ comma
  • In spite of/ despite + noun or –ING
  • Despite the fact that…
  • However/ Nevertheless + comma
  • On the one hand/ On the other hand + comma
  • In contrast to/with
  • As opposed to…
  • On the contrary + comma
  • Alternatively + comma
  • Instead of + -ING
  • The former/ the latter (only with 2 components)
  • Conversely+ comma
  • While/ Whereas + full sentence
  • But/Yet + full sentence or –ING Example: The book is short, YET it is interesting / The book is short YET interesting .

ADDITION

  • As well as + -ING
  • Apart from this / that + comma
  • Also (at the beginning + comma/ before the main verb)
  • Too (at the end of a sentence)
  • Besides + comma
  • Additionally + comma
  • What is more + comma
  • On top of that + comma
  • Furthermore / Morever (after giving various reasons)
  • In addition to + – ING

EXAMPLE

  • One such example is …
  • Such as …
  • In other words + comma
  • That is to say …
  • One instance could be …
  • For example / for instance

SEQUENCE and TIME

  • First of all / Firstly + comma
  • To begin with + comma
  • Once /as soon as + full sentence. Ex. Once you have finished studying you can go to the park
  • Secondly + comma
  • Later/ after that / afterwards + comma
  • Then / next + comma
  • Meanwhile/ in the meantime + comma
  • Now that + full sentence. Ex. Now that you have finished studying you can go to the park.
  • All of a sudden / suddenly + comma
  • Eventually/ finally/ in the end + comma

PURPOSE

  • To infinitive
  • So that / in order that + full sentence
  • In order to /so as to + infinitive

RESULT

  • As a result/ consequently/ accordingly/ as a consequence + comma
  • Therefore + comma
  • For this /that reason + comma
  • So / that is why/ because of this/ that + comma
  • With this in mind + comma
  • On account of the fact that + full sentence
  • Bearing this in mind + comma
  • Taking this into account + comma

CAUSE

  • Because of / on account of + full sentence
  • Owing to / due to + -ING / noun
  • In view of/ in the light of + -ING/ full sentence
  • Given that + comma

OPINION

  • My own view of this is …
  • My personal opinion …
  • Speaking personally + comma
  • It seems to me that…
  • For my part + comma
  • As I see it + comma
  • I feel strongly that …
  • I believe …

TO PRESENT A TOPIC

  • It is often said / asserted/ claimed that …
  • It is a well-known fact that…
  • For the majority of people …
  • One of the most striking features/ aspects of this issue/ topic…
  • By way of introduction …

CONCLUSION

  • In summary + comma
  • In brief + comma
  • In short + comma
  • To sum up + comma
  • All in all + comma
  • In conclusion to be brief + comma
  • On the whole + comma
  • Basically + comma

CLARIFICATION

  • That is to say + comma
  • To clarify + comma
  • To rephrase it + comma
  • In other words + comma
  • That is + comma

COMPARISON

  • In the same way + comma
  • Likewise + comma
  • Similarly+ comma
  • Compared with + -ING / full sentence
  • In comparison with + -ING/ full sentence

INTENSIFICATION

  • Indeed + comma
  • Undoubtedly / without doubt + comma
  • In fact + comma
  • Certainly+comma
  • By all means + comma
  • Surely + comma

PARTICULARISATION

  • In particular +comma
  • Particularly + comma
  • Specifically + comma
English 2

E2 Test 1 Practice 2

I.1. Turn the sentences into passive:

  • 1. They can’t speak Italian during the conference.
  • 2. We are introducing a new method of teaching.
  • 3. Do you clean your flat regularly?
  • 4. People will never forget the Second World War.
  • 5. Peter has called her for a drink.
  • 6. I took the wallet from the desk.

I.2. Combine the two sentences to make ONE. Use a relative pronoun:

  • Helen works for a company. It makes furniture.
  • The film is about a young boy. It made a huge success.
  • The police have caught the man. He stole my neighbour’s car.
  • Barbara decided to move to Belgrade. She always wanted to live in the city.
  • James didn’t phone me last night. It is quite strange.
  • My sister lives in Germany. She is a veterinarian.

I.3 Supply the blanks with the appropriate question tag:

  1. He’s doing his best, ___________________?
  2. They don’t have much money, ______________________?
  3. Don’t disturb me till 4, ______________________?
  4. You can see that house, _____________________?
  5. She made a cake, ___________________?
  6. Let’s go for a drink, ______________?

I.4 Choose the correct participle to complete the sentences.

  • worrying/worried
  • confusing/confused
  • interesting/interested
  • surprising/surprised
  • frightening/frightened
  • tiring/tired
  1. I was really _________________ when John appeared at the door with the present for me.
  2. Don’t be so _________________. You’ll certainly pass the exam.
  3. His speech was so _________________. I didn’t understand a word.
  4. Can you think of anything _________________ to say or you’ll keep talking nonsense?
  5. The children are __________________ by wild animals.
  6. I was so _____________ last night, I went straight to bed.

II Vocabulary

II.1. Complete the sentences using the appropriate form of the word given in brackets:

  1. Football ___________ (support) sometimes can be real vandals.
  2. I like all gadgets, but some are totally ___________ (use)! I don’t know what to do with them.
  3. Teachers work hard to _____________ (education) their students.
  4. We were not ______________ (information) on time about the annual meeting.
  5. Sylvia dances _____________ (beauty). I like to see her dance.
  6. I had a serious ____________ (difficult) when I wanted to register online.

II.2. Fill in using ONE word only:

  1. Scientists say that cars are guilty of the air ____________ and all bad things about it.
  2. We all have busy business _____________ and sometimes forget to laugh.
  3. We have some premonitions about bad things, but we can never find ____________ for that.
  4. If you want to meet some _______________, you must be very persistent. As all popular people, they usually hide from the public eye.
  5. David Thomas _____________ all his maths exams and left school without qualifications.
  6. All students learn by doing ______________ tasks, although theory is important too.

II.3. Give the synonymous words or the expressions for the given words/expressions:

  1. random
  2. humble
  3. contagious
  4. chance
  5. afford
  6. sitcom

II.4. Circle the word which best fits the blank space:

  • 1. If you want to memorize things, try to ___________ them to some familiar people or places.
  • A) link B) think C) put D) remember
  • 2. Oh, you are so disturbing. Go away and ___________ your own business!
  • A) mind B) see C) watch D) look
  • 3. We must say that some good inventions still have many ________________.
  • A) disadvantages B)unpopularity C) opinions D) results
  • 4. My husband is __________ with gadgets of all kinds. He loves them!
  • A) full B) hooked C) obsessed D) adoring
  • 5. A smile helps you to exercise your facial _____________.
  • A) muscles B) frowns C) lips D) parts
  • 6. What football club do you _____________?
  • A) defend B) support C) encourage D) yell for
Business

Numbers: How to write them (lesson and practice)

  • Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for other numbers:
  • over two pounds
  • six million dollars
  • after thirty-one years
  • eighty-three people
  • after 126 days
  • only $31.50
  • 6,381 bushels
  • 4.78 litres  

Days and Years

  • December 12, 1965 or 12 December 1965
  • A.D. 1066
  • in 1900
  • in 1971-72 or in 1971-1972
  • the eighties, the twentieth century
  • the 1980’s or the 1980s

Time of Day

  • 8:00 A.M. (or) a.m. (or) eight o’clock in the morning
  • 4:30 P.M. (or) p.m. (or) half-past four in the afternoon

Addresses

  • 16 Tenth Street
  • 350 West 114 Street

Identification Numbers

  • Room 8
  • Channel 18
  • Interstate 65
  • Henry VIII

Page and Division of Books and Plays

  • page 30
  • chapter 6
  • in act 3, scene 2 (or) in Act III, Scene ii

Decimals and Percentages

  • a 2.7 average
  • 13 1/4 per cent
  • .037 metric ton

Large Round Numbers

  • four billion dollars (or) $4 billion
  • 16,500,000 (or) 16.5 million

Notes on Usage

Repeat numbers in legal or commercial writing.

  • The bill will not exceed one hundred (100) dollars.

Numbers in series and statistics should be consistent.

  • two apples, six oranges, and three bananas
  • NOT: two apples, 6 oranges, and 3 bananas
  • 115 feet by 90 feet (or) 115′ x 90′
  • scores of 25-6 (or) scores of 25 to 6
  • The vote was 9 in favour and 5 opposed

Write out numbers beginning sentences.

  • Six per cent of the group failed.
  • NOT: 6% of the group failed.

Use a combination of figures and words for numbers when such a combination will keep your writing clear.

  • Unclear: The club celebrated the birthdays of 6 90-year-olds who were born in the city. (may cause the reader to read ‘690’ as one number.)
  • Clearer: The club celebrated the birthdays of six 90-year-olds who were born in the city.

Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, sizes, scores, money, and points on a scale

  • in about 6 years
  • 2 days ago
  • at 12 noon
  • $5
  • 6-year-old children

Numbers that represent a place in a series

  • year 7 of an 8-year project
  • room 9
  • Figure 2 (in an article)
  • Chapter 5
  • row 1

Numbers in a list of four or more numbers

  • 1, 2, 4, and 8 bits, respectively

Numbers less than 10 that do not represent exact measurements.

  • only three times
  • four 32-bit words
  • eight lists
  • nine pages
  • a three-way interaction

Any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading.

  • Sixteen-bit processors were used.
  • Thirteen of 20 processors failed.

Common fractions

  • one-fifth of the users
  • execution time was reduced by two thirds
  • in one half the time

Widely accepted phrases

  • the Fourth of July
  • the Ten Commandments

Combined figures and words.

  • 3 million cycles
  • 32 million bytes
  • in 2 three-part modules
  • twenty-four 8-bit words

Ordinal numbers.

Treat ordinal numbers as cardinal numbers

  • a second-order relationship
  • a third-generation chip
  • the 3rd and 12th rows of the matrix

Exercise 1: Each sentence contains at least one error. Correct them.

  1. I bought 3 computers.
  2. I bought three computers and 20 printers.
  3. 10 people came to the meeting at 10 o’clock.
  4. They have sold four million copies of this software so far.
  5. The 1st new computer system is ordered already.
  6. I’ve tried this 2 or 3 times.
  7. This sentence is 6 words long.
  8. This increases processing speed by five per cent.
  9. The screen is 32.56 cm wide and eight cm tall.
  10. Look in lab number seven.
  11. Chapter 7 of this book begins on page 1,230.
  12. The probability of getting this relationship by chance is less than 0.05.
  13. 2 or three weeks ago that bug was fixed.
  14. They voted by a 2/3 majority.
  15. When the result is multiplied by one hundred, you get a percentage.
  16. The first and tenth lines of the matrix contain 0s
  17. Two two-part modules were added.
  18. All of these 8’s have to be written as words.
  19. Please wait outside Room Seven.
  20. This chip has a drawing speed of eight ns/pixel with 32 bits per pixel.